Surgery plays a role of paramount importance in the management of both inflammatory and neoplastic lesions of the sinonasal tract. During the last two decades a clear tendency to limit the indications of external approaches in favor of endonasal procedures with the help of endoscopes and/or the microscope has been observed. However, external approaches have still a role in the management of some selected cases of inflammatory diseases and benign tumors and they must be considered the gold standard for malignant tumors. The aim of this chapter will not be to review all the numerous surgical techniques which have been reported along the years in the literature, but instead to focus on those which are nowadays more commonly used and which should be necessarily included in the armamentarium of any otorhinolaryngologist or maxillofacial surgeon with special interest in sinona-sal diseases.

P. Nicolai, MD, Professor

A. R. Antonelli, Professor and Chairman

Department of Otorhinolaryngology, University of Brescia,

Piazzale Spedali Civili 1, Brescia, BS, 25123, Italy

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