Absorption of Stress with Possible Avoidance of Concussion
This theory originated from Negus' work on horned ungulates (Negus 1958). He noted that the air spaces which extend over the cranial vault and into the horns, such as the ox and goat, are sometimes explained as stress distributors. However, in other horned ungulates such as the moose, the horns are attached directly to the cranium without air spaces. Rui (1960) observed that the sinus complex could be considered as a pyramidal buffer with the base situated anteriorly and the apex at the sphenoid thus forming an architectural structure suited to a protective function of endocranial structures.
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