Clinical and Endoscopic Findings
Clinical manifestations of sinonasal neuroendocrine and undifferentiated carcinoma are nonspecific, though suggestive for a rapidly growing neoplasm. Therefore, involvement of multiple sinonasal structures as well as extension into the orbit and/or the cranial cavity are not infrequently detected at presentation (Musy et al. 2002).
Paraneoplastic hypersecretion of ACTH and cal-citonin have been reported in two cases of sinonasal neuroendocrine carcinoma (Kameya et al. 1980); more recently, also a syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion has been diagnosed in association with a neuroendocrine carcinoma (Vasan et al. 2004).
In sinonasal undifferentiated carcinoma, cervical node metastases are detected at diagnosis in a rate of patients ranging between 13% (Musy et al. 2002) and 50% (Smith et al. 2000), whereas distant spreading is present in up to 31% (Jeng et al. 2002).
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