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Additional MR Sequences

Volumetric interpolated breath-hold imaging (VIBE) is a 3D MR technique aimed at minimizing partial volume effects and maximizing image contrast, and represents a robust alternative to SE T1 sequences. This fat-sat gradient-echo T1 weighted sequence has the potential to provide submillimetric sections, no gaps, and isotropic voxels, thus making it suitable for optimal MPR/MIP reconstructions in all planes.

Due to its high flexibility, it can be optimized for short acquisition times (slice thickness 0.7 mm, 144 partitions, matrix size 320, acquisition time 1'26") (Table 1.6). When accurate synchronization of contrast injection and image acquisition is fulfilled, the same sequence may provide high-quality MR angio-grams, to correctly demonstrate the relationships between tumor and vessels.

Adequate arrangement of parameters (slice thickness 0.5 mm, 224 partitions, matrix size 448, acquisition time 3'52") converts VIBE into a robust high resolution sequence (Fig. 1.1) that allows full coverage of the paranasal sinuses and skull base, valuable for precise definition of tumor extension and perineural spread (Table 1.6).

Table 1.6. VIBE sequence
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