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Nasal Septum

The nasal septum comprises the septal cartilage, anteriorly, the perpendicular plate of the ethmoid bone supero-posteriorly, and the vomer infero-posteriorly. The rostrum of the sphenoid bone fits into a groove on the superior surface of the vomer (Fig. 2.5). At the base of the nasal septum is the nasal crest formed by the maxillary and palatine bones.

On either side of the upper nasal septum is a narrow space - the olfactory recess - that ends up with the horizontal portion of the cribriform plate. Posteriorly, the olfactory recess widens into the sphe-noethmoidal recess (Fig. 2.5).

References

Anderhuber W, Weiglein A, Wolf G (1992) Nasal cavities and paranasal sinuses in newborns and children. Acta Anat (Basel) 144:120-126 Bent J, Cuilty-Siller C, Kuhn FA (1994) The frontal cell as a cause of frontal sinus obstruction. Am J Rhinol 8:185191

Bolger WE, Butzin CA, Parsons DS (1991) Paranasal sinus bony anatomic variations and mucosal abnormalities: CT analysis for endoscopic sinus surgery. Laryngoscope 101:56-64

DeLano MC, Fun FY, Zinreich SJ (1996) Relationship of the optic nerve to the posterior paranasal sinuses: a CT anatomic study. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 17:669-675 Dessi P, Moulin G, Triglia JM et al (1994) Difference in the height of the right and left ethmoidal roofs: a possible risk factor for ethmoidal surgery. Prospective study of 150 CT scans. J Laryngol Otol 108:261-262 Joe JK, Ho SY, Yanagisawa E (2000) Documentation of variations in sinonasal anatomy by intraoperative nasal endos-copy. Laryngoscope 110:229-235 Kainz J, Stammberger H (1992) Danger areas of the posterior rhinobasis. An endoscopic and anatomical-surgical study. Acta Otolaryngol 112:852-861 Keros P (1962) On the practical value of differences in the level of the lamina cribrosa of the ethmoid. Z Laryngol Rhinol Otol 41:809-813 Kim SS, Lee JG, Kim KS et al (2001) Computed tomographic and anatomical analysis of the basal lamellas in the ethmoid sinus. Laryngoscope 111:424-429 Laine FJ, Smoker WR (1992) The ostiomeatal unit and endoscopic surgery: anatomy, variations, and imaging findings in inflammatory diseases. AJR Am J Roentgenol 159:849857

Landsberg R, Friedman M (2001) A computer-assisted anatomical study of the nasofrontal region. Laryngoscope 111:2125-2130

Lebowitz RA, Terk A, Jacobs JB et al (2001) Asymmetry of the ethmoid roof: analysis using coronal computed tomography. Laryngoscope 111:2122-2124 Lloyd GA (1990) CT of the paranasal sinuses: study of a control series in relation to endoscopic sinus surgery. J Laryngol Otol 104:477-481

Perez P, Sabate J, Carmona A et al (2000) Anatomical variations in the human paranasal sinus region studied by CT. J Anat 197(Pt 2):221-227 Stackpole SA, Edelstein DR (1997) The anatomic relevance of the Haller cell in sinusitis. Am J Rhinol 11:219-223 Stammberger H, Kennedy DW (1995) Paranasal sinuses: anatomic terminology and nomenclature. The Anatomic Terminology Group. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol Suppl 167:7-16

Stammberger H, Wolf G (1988) Headaches and sinus disease: the endoscopic approach. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol Suppl 134:3-23

Wanamaker HH (1996) Role of Haller's cell in headache and sinus disease: a case report. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 114:324-327

Wolf G, Anderhuber W, Kuhn F (1993) Development of the paranasal sinuses in children: implications for paranasal sinus surgery. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol 102:705-711

3 Physiology of the Nose and Paranasal Sinuses

Davide Tomenzon

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