Shellfish Allergy

Food Allergies

Food Allergies

Peanuts can leave you breathless. Cat dander can lead to itchy eyes, a stuffy nose, coughing and sneezing. And most of us have suffered through those seasonal allergies with horrible pollen counts. Learn more...

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NonlgEMediated Food Reactions

Food-allergy-like symptoms can be inducedby contaminated foods or foods containing high concentrations of allergic mediators. In scromboid fish poisoning, the normally high level of histidine in tuna or mackerel is decarboxylated to histamine by proteus or klebsiella contamination during food processing.

Food Allergies

Food allergy can be defined as an immunologie reaction resulting from the ingestion of a food or a food additive as opposed to the more general term food intolerance, which includes any abnormal response to a food or food additive.1 It has been estimated that 6 to of all children are affected by food allergies.Allergies may occur after a small amount of the allergen is ingested and are unrelated to any physiologic effect of the food, food additive, or cross-contaminant.2 The most common allergies encountered during infancy and childhood are to cow's milk protein (CMP), soy protein, fish. eggs, and cereals. Other foods children may be allergic to include berries, nuts, peanuts, and chocolate.4 There are four types of hypersensitivity reactions that may occur alone or in combination to cause allergic responses (Table 25-1). Clinical symptoms may be gastrointestinal. respiratory, dermatologie, or systemic in nature (Table 25-2).5 The gold standard for the diagnosis of food allergies is a...

Allergic Reactions In The

Within minutes after ingesting allergenic foodstuffs, IgE-mediated reactions occur in the intestine and patients exhibit vomiting, diarrhea, malabsorption, and blood and protein loss through the intestine. Food allergy is uncommon, affecting approximately 5 of infants and 2 of the adult population.

Case Study for Chapter

Explain the symptoms that accompany lactose intolerance. 4. How common is lactose intolerance 5. What can be done about lactose intolerance 3. The child might have had an allergy to proteins in milk. The lactose breath test results indicate lactose intolerance. 4. In the most of the world's population, intestinal lactase activity is high during childhood, but falls after ages 5 to 7 to low adult levels. The prevalence of lactose intolerance in adults is about 100 in Asian Americans, 95 in Native Americans, 81 in African Americans, 56 in Mexican Americans, and 24 in white Americans. Lactose intolerance is common (about 50 to 70 ) in adult Americans of Mediterranean descent, but is low (0 to only a few ) in those of northern European ancestry.

Dilated Pouch Gastric Bypass

Esophageal Dilation Gastric Banding

Esophageal dysmotility and dilation is a newly recognized complication of LASGB. Intuitively, one might expect an inverse correlation between stomal diameter and esophageal dilation, but none was found. The majority of patients in our study developed new or more severe esophageal symptoms after placement of the device. Other studies support an increase in reflux after gastric banding. Ovrebo found in a study of 17 patients with the so-called Swedish LASGB device that acid regurgitation and heartburn increased from approx 15 to 60 after gastric banding. Other authors report complications such as food intolerance unresponsive to band deflation being attributable to pouch dilatation and or stomal stenosis. Kuzmak, although using a previous version of the current band system, showed that early postoperative contrast study document a pouch dilation rate of 6.5 which increased to 50 over a four year follow-up. Doherty et al found that 38 of patients with an adjustable silicone gastric band...

Localized Anaphylaxis Atopy

In localized anaphylaxis, the reaction is limited to a specific target tissue or organ, often involving epithelial surfaces at the site of allergen entry. The tendency to manifest localized anaphylactic reactions is inherited and is called atopy. Atopic allergies, which afflict at least 20 of the population in developed countries, include a wide range of IgE-mediated disorders, including allergic rhinitis (hay fever), asthma, atopic dermatitis (eczema), and food allergies. FOOD ALLERGIES Various foods also can induce localized anaphylaxis in allergic individuals. Allergen crosslinking of IgE on mast cells along the upper or lower gastrointestinal tract can induce localized smooth-muscle contraction and vasodilation and thus such symptoms as vomiting or diarrhea. Mast-cell degranulation along the gut can increase the permeability of mucous membranes, so that the allergen enters the bloodstream. Various symptoms can ensue, depending on where the allergen is deposited. For example, some...

1. Trier Js. Celiac Sprue. N Eng J Med 1991

Savuiano DA. l.cvitl MD. A comparison of symptoms after the consumption of milk or lactose-hydrolyzed milk by people with self-reported severe lactose intolerance. N Eng J Med 1995 333 1-4. 20. Pearson M. Teahon K. Levi AJ. Bjarnason 1. Food intolerance and Crohn's disease. Gut 1993 34 783-7.

Type I Hypersensitivities Can Be Controlled Medically

The end result is a mouse human chimeric monoclonal that is not likely to be recognized as foreign by the human immune system. When injected into people suffering from allergy, these antibodies can bind free IgE as well as down-regulate IgE production in B cells. This results in lower serum IgE concentration which, in turn, reduces the sensitivity of basophils. This form of immunotherapy is useful in treating many forms of allergies, especially crippling food allergies.

The Lack of Some Digestive Enzymes Impairs Carbohydrate Absorption

Impaired carbohydrate absorption caused by the absence of salivary or pancreatic amylase almost never occurs because these enzymes are usually present in great excess. However, impaired absorption due to a deficiency in membrane disaccharidases is rather common. Such deficiencies can be either genetic or acquired. Among congenital deficiencies, lactase deficiency is, by far, the most common. Affected individuals suffer from lactose intolerance, a condition in which the ingestion of milk products results in severe osmotic (watery) diarrhea. The mechanism responsible is depicted in Figure 27.22. Undigested lactose in the intestinal lumen increases the osmolality of the luminal contents. Osmolality is further increased by lactic acid produced from the action of intestinal bacteria on the lactose. Increased luminal osmolality results in net water secretion into the lumen. The accumulation of fluid distends the small intestine and accelerates peristalsis, eventually resulting in watery...