Ways To Improve Self Confidence

Solid Confidence Affirmation

Solid Confidence Affirmation

Simple Steps To Raise Your Confidence Levels Easily. In this book, you will learn all about: Why Affirmations Are Important For Concrete Confidence. How To Use Affirmations Effectively For Concrete Confidence. How To Jump In. Dating Affirmation. Better Speaker Affirmation. Authentically Happy Affirmation and so much MORE.

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Quantum Confidence

Quantum Confidence System is the new program designed by Song Chengxiang, who promises to teach people how to be more confident quickly and effectively. The new program is suitable for those who wish to get rid of all problems in their life such as anxiety, boring, stress, missing and more. In other words, this helpful guide will help users believe in themselves. The new program provides users with full information about the Morry Method brainwave entrainment technology. The Morry method applies a proprietary protocol that is created to stimuli the brain and mind. In other words, the Morry Method permits users to release combinations of neurotransmitters, endorphins with hormones, which give effective result and remarkable benefits. Furthermore, the Morry Method utilizes unique and helpful Isochoric and monaural tones. This system must be considered much in the same way, it is important once you get to the point where you want to be that you keep up a maintenance routine, a routine designed to maintain your results, without it you definitely run the risk of returning to the state that you were in previous to your use of the Quantum Confidence system.

Quantum Confidence System Summary


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Need For Objective Assessment Of Epidemiologic Evidence

Beyond the more global context for epidemiologic evidence, other challenges to impartiality arise in the professional workplace. On a personal level, we may not always welcome criticism of the quality of our own work or that of valued colleagues and friends, or be quite as willing as we should be to accept the excellent work done by those we dislike. The ultimate revelation of an ad hominem assessment of evidence lies in the statement that I didn't believe it until we saw it in our own data. Such self-esteem may have great psychological value but is worrisome with regard to objectivity. Epidemiologists may also be motivated to protect the prestige of the discipline, which can encourage us to overstate or understate the conclusiveness of a given research product. We may be tempted to

Witness to Revolution

Linus Pauling did more at Oregon Agricultural College than learn science and fall in love. He began to build a strong sense of self-confidence, a belief in his abilities to teach and to think critically. And he enlarged his understanding of society. His ceaseless reading included the stories of the French writer Guy de Maupassant, with their lessons about human nature, and the plays of the British social critic George Bernard Shaw, whose wit and insight started him thinking about the many ways in which a society built around privileged classes and private wealth could hurt its poorer and less fortunate members.

F301 Mania without psychotic symptoms

Mood is elevated out of keeping with the patient's circumstances and may vary from carefree joviality to almost uncontrollable excitement. Elation is accompanied by increased energy, resulting in overactivity, pressure of speech, and a decreased need for sleep. Attention cannot be sustained, and there is often marked distractibility. Self-esteem is often inflated with grandiose ideas and overconfidence. Loss of normal social inhibitions may result in behaviour that is reckless, foolhardy, or inappropriate to the circumstances, and out of character.

What are the Risks of Cellular and Molecular Brain Therapeutic Interventions

Directly or indirectly related to the disease. They are directly related when particular nervous functions are affected and indirectly related if the physical, psychological and social situation of patients is altered by the burden of the symptoms, limited potential of daily autonomous handling, fear, depression, stress, uncertainty about the future and a possible loss of self-respect and self-confidence. If the burden of the disease's symptoms can be eliminated, or alleviated, by neurorestorative interventions, many of these personality aspects will subsequently improve, simply because the patient feels better and healthier. These are welcome effects on their personality and not unwanted side effects. In this respect, these brain interventions are not different from a pharmaceutical therapy that aims to treat the origin of a disease. Neuro-active medication is often also prescribed to treat the symptoms of personality changes observed in psychiatric and neurological diseases the...

Barriers to Changing Practice

A considerable body of literature exists evaluating why clinicians do not follow evidence based clinical practice guidelines 21 . The model proposed by Cabana and colleagues after reviewing the literature in this area identified seven categories of barriers lack of awareness or lack of familiarity with the guidelines lack of agreement, lack of self-efficacy, lack of outcome expectancy, or the inertia of previous practice and external barriers (usually factors associated with the structure of the guideline or local systems of care). Relatively few studies have specifically focused on the research question about why certain ventilator practices are implemented or not. The surveys of French and Canadian intensivists asked about barriers to using the various ventilator circuit and secretion management practices across 6 domains adverse effects, cost, patient discomfort, nurse inconvenience, not available, and other. They found that the barriers to use varied across the different...

Cognitively Restructuring The Experience Of Depression

Alladin's (1994) Cognitive Dissociative Model utilizes the hypnotic process to facilitate cognitive restructuring. He describes a theoretical model linking hypnosis with depression and reports preliminary data finding no difference in outcome between this treatment methodology and Beck et al.'s (1979, 1985) cognitive therapy approach . However, subjects in the cognitive hypnotherapy group showed more rapid improvement, greater reduction in anxiety scores, and a significant increase in self-confidence.

Utilizing Hypnotic Techniques In A Cognitivebehavioural Management Programme For Depression

3 Ego strengthening techniques hold considerable promise for the modification of depression on theoretical grounds. A negative view of the self is one of the primary components of Beck's (1979) cognitive triad. Hartland (1971) popularized the concept of 'ego-strengthening' and utilized it in much of his therapy to reinforce self-reliance and a positive self-image. (see Hammond, 1990, for a useful discussion and a range of hypnotic approaches to ego-strengthening).

Hyperkinetic disorders

A group of disorders characterized by an early onset (usually in the first five years of life), lack of persistence in activities that require cognitive involvement, and a tendency to move from one activity to another without completing any one, together with disorganized, ill-regulated, and excessive activity. Several other abnormalities may be associated. Hyperkinetic children are often reckless and impulsive, prone to accidents, and find themselves in disciplinary trouble because of unthinking breaches of rules rather than deliberate defiance. Their relationships with adults are often socially disinhibited, with a lack of normal caution and reserve. They are unpopular with other children and may become isolated. Impairment of cognitive functions is common, and specific delays in motor and language development are disproportionately frequent. Secondary complications include dissocial behaviour and low self-esteem.

Assessment Of Effectiveness

Improvement in self-esteem I expect to see a change in the patient's sense and stability of a positive self-image which can be reflected in the sentence completion test, the psychiatric interview and specific projective testing such as the Thematic Apperception Test (TAT).

Social Characteristics

Life stage differences exist in social norms about body shape ideals, with young people emphasizing slimness more than older people (52,63). As people proceed through their life course, they exhibit a personal weight trajectory that is subject to social expectations about age-appropriate standards for body weight (62). Concern about weight varies across life stages for women, with greater concern among younger than older women (64). However, it appears that concerns about body weight are more tied with women's self-esteem among middle-aged women (age 30 to 49), suggesting that weight concern may be less problematic among most younger and older women.

The Cultural Context of Rape

Women of color are underrepresented in prevalence studies of violence against women. However, Goodman, Koss, Fitzgerald, Russo, and Keita (1993) suggest that street crimes such as rape by strangers are more prevalent among ethnic and poor women. This may explain Wyatt's (1992) finding that Black women are more likely than white women to be raped by strangers and to give as explanations the riskiness of their living situation, such as use of public transportation, walking in unlit neighborhoods, and living in high crime areas (Wyatt, 1992). Yet Koss and Dinero (1989) found lower victimization rates for black than for white women when all types of rape were assessed. There may be two reasons for this finding. First, black women are more likely than white women to possess a strong sense of self, profess principles of self-reliance, self-protection, and avoidance of interpersonal exploitation (Holland & Eisenhart, 1990). Thus, they are more likely to physically resist rape, using multiple...

Increasing compliance

Simplify treatment regimens (e.g., by prescribing, if appropriate, daily medication in one dose instead of in multiple administrations, or by recommending exercises that can be fitted into the patient's daily schedule). This is likely to enhance self-efficacy beliefs and treatment adherence. B. Impact on work. Arthritis may have an even more severe effect on employment for women than for men. The economic impact of women's work disability is probably underestimated because their nurturing, teaching, and housekeeping work in the paid labor market is economically undervalued. Furthermore, the economic value of work that women do at home without pay is undervalued even more. Women with RA who have more significant homemaker responsibilities are less likely to be disabled than women with fewer responsibilities (even after disease severity and functional status are equalized statistically). In fact, having a greater number of homemaker responsibilities may enhance a woman's sense of...

Increasing the psychological wellbeing of your patients

Actively involve family members in the patient's care. On the most basic level, patients with stronger support systems are more compliant with treatment. Involve family members in treatment from the beginning, not merely during a crisis. Family members need to understand the nature and severity of the patient's illness and the details of treatment if they are to be helpful. Informing family members about such simple things as what to expect when flares occur and potential side effects of medication may serve to minimize problems. Encourage family members to join in discussions during medical visits. Encourage family members to reinforce patients' coping efforts and learn to offer help that does not undermine patients' self-esteem.

How Can You Keep Emotionally And Physically Fit And Strong Enough To Cope With Stress

Do daily, effective exercise. Eat a healthy, balanced, low fat, low salt diet. Eat healthy food at home rather than snack or eat convenience foods from supermarkets or fast food outlets. Take time for yourself for regular leisure activities every day. Pursue a hobby. This may be a physical form of exercise like gardening, an outdoor sport, cycling, sailing, rowing, basketball, hiking, baseball, or soccer. Team sports are particularly therapeutic but difficult to arrange throughout the year. Take an interest and pride in yourself. Look inwardly for your good points and find these reassuring and a source of self-confidence. Avoid alcohol. Do not smoke. Take a break from work. Reduce caffeine - tea, coffee, chocolate. Drink water if you are thirsty.

Managing Sexual Difficulties

The diagnosis of MS may alter one's self-image, and it is common to feel sexually unattractive when one is concerned about braces, wheelchairs, and catheters. Perhaps the single most helpful approach to managing sexual difficulties is to focus on becoming comfortable with your body, a goal that requires time and commitment. it is important to identify your positive personal qualities and to put effort into feeling good about yourself by taking care of your body through exercise, diet, dress, and so forth. Feeling good about

Hypnosis In The Management Of Anxiety Disorders

The primary goals of psychological therapies for anxiety states are the exposure of the patient (via imagery or reality) to the situation provoking the anxiety, thereby allowing deconditioning, habituation or desensitization cognitive re-evaluations of the situation to alter the perception of threat determining the personal significance (symbolic) of the anxiety provocation increasing the sense of self-efficacy, behaviorally or cognitively, in the patient's ability to deal with the anxiety-eliciting situation and the symptoms and the rehearsal and effecting of coping strategies.

Quality Of Life And Obstacles To Care

Sense of failure associated with elevated blood glucose readings despite a sincere effort, and the frustrations of needing medication when self-image associates pill taking with the sick role are a few examples of the psychosocial complexities. Effective diabetes education begins with listening to the patient and his perception of life with diabetes.

Acute Postoperative Phase

Attention is also paid to the patient's posture in order to avoid the development of skin breakdown. It must be stressed how beneficial training is from a psychological point of view in fact, it helps reduce and manage anxiety and stress, contributes to higher morale and promotes greater self-esteem.

Susan E Frates MS RD and Heidi Schauster MS RD

And assembly of a collaborative, multidisciplinary treatment team. Outpatient management of eating disorders typically takes a more gradual, integrated approach to weight management and normalization of eating habits. Efforts to educate children on the development of healthful eating habits, sound body image, and self-esteem are recommended as a means of prevention.

F603 Emotionally unstable personality disorder

Personality disorder characterized by a definite tendency to act impulsively and without consideration of the consequences the mood is unpredictable and capricious. There is a liability to outbursts of emotion and an incapacity to control the behavioural explosions. There is a tendency to quarrelsome behaviour and to conflicts with others, especially when impulsive acts are thwarted or censored. Two types may be distinguished the impulsive type, characterized predominantly by emotional instability and lack of impulse control, and the borderline type, characterized in addition by disturbances in self-image, aims, and internal preferences, by chronic feelings of emptiness, by intense and unstable interpersonal relationships, and by a tendency to self-destructive behaviour, including suicide gestures and attempts.

Privilege power and reverse discrimination

Ate the severity of the sexist discrimination that they experience, particularly those with low self-esteem, in order to make an external, self-protective attribution that explains why they are not continuing to receive their expected amount of privilege (Swim et al., 1995). Another explanation for this finding comes from research that demonstrates that acknowledging their male privilege negatively affects men's self-esteem, life satisfaction, and self-confidence. Thus, to avoid these damaging consequences, men must disavow the unearned privilege that appears so obvious to many women, making it more likely that they will feel discriminated against when any of that privilege is tampered with (Branscombe, 1996, cited in Swim et al., 1995). crimination in order to avoid depression and loss of social approval, while men exaggerate discrimination in order to avoid loss of power, privilege, and self-esteem.

Narrative Approach to Personal Identity

Of course, the internal consistency of a story is not enough to make it a true story. To this end, a story also has to be consistent with the facts . Regarding self-conceptualising stories, there can be more or less obvious conflict between what a person says and what she does. We already saw how to deal with external inconsistencies of this kind. If they can't be explained away (i.e. if it can't be shown that they just seemed to contradict the facts), they can be explained with reference to an image that a person may consciously create in order to fool others about her true self-concept, or with reference to a discrepancy between how a person thinks about herself and how she actually is. As a special variant of the latter case those numberless situations are worth mentioning in which persons fail to act in accordance with their ideal self-image . The important thing here is, though, that no amount of external inconsistencies will ever lead to a breakdown of story-ness . As long as it...

The first lifespan development pattern

In a study of metamemory in older adults, Kawano (1999) found a significant negative correlation between memory self-efficacy and memory performance. This is in line with the memory-introspection paradox (Herrmann, 1982), which holds that individuals with poor memory aptitude have more difficulties in remembering just how poor their memories actually are. This finding is also interesting from the lifespan-development perspective, for this would seem to be a characteristic of the older adult's metamemory, which is not likely to be a part of the metamemory in a child. This seems to suggest qualitative differences in the nature of the memory abilities of the young and old.

Current Status Of Clinical Hypnosis With Personality And Psychotic Disorders

In addition, current hypnotic techniques for utilizing hypnosis with the severely disturbed patient include specific techniques designed to deal with their specific developmental deficits. The technique of renurturing with hypnotic imagery is designed to create the capacity for initial bonding relatedness and self-love, utilizing images of the adult patient and the therapist as a composite 'mother'.

The Transitional Period A More Optimistic View Of Hypnosis With Severely Disturbed Patients

Scagnelli (1974, 1975, 1976, 1977) published a series of studies on the therapeutic integration of hypnosis into psychotherapy with schizophrenic and personality disorder patients. In the 1974 paper, Scagnelli reported successful clinical work with an acute schizophrenic male patient. The patient was diagnosed in two prior hospitalizations as an acute affective schizophrenic. He experienced alternating delusional patterns of grandiosity and threat. His threatening delusions centered around fears that he was about to die or that he was turning into an animal. His grandiose delusions centered around feelings that he was 'designated' to heal other patients. Hypnosis was utilized to help the patient access his anxiety-laden feelings of inadequacy. With the use of hypnosis the patient was able to access and reframe his past experiences. He was then able to build a more positive sense of self-esteem. Specific hypnotic techniques included relaxation for the reduction of anxiety hypnotic...

Sexism Heterosexism and Racism

Heterosexism and homophobia serve to perpetuate misogyny and sexism (Pharr, 1988). Male dominance and female dependence are preserved through heterosexist attitudes and institutions that keep women subordinate to men. This is done through the belief that women need men to be secure, fulfilled, and functioning properly, thereby rejecting the possibility that women can do things on their own or even with other women. The label lesbian affects all women as it is used as a threat against and a put-down of all women who reject male domination and control. Misogyny, sexism, heterosexism, and homophobia interact to influence every sphere of a lesbian's life identity, self-esteem, sexuality and sexual identity, relationships with family and intimate partners, attitudes and feelings about men, and sense of safety. These effects vary according to the personal history, race, class, age, disability, and sexual orientation of women. However, even with individual variations, what is common to each...

Cultural Impact of Space Colonization

Space Colonization

As the human mind opens up to the limitless possibilities and opportunities of living in space, a great diversification of human society can be envisioned. Unlike Earth, where limited resources together with economical and geographical factors do not permit the maintenance of impermeable boundaries between nations, space colonies could develop into fully self-sufficient statehoods, which might individually regulate their physi-

Factors promoting psychological adaptation to rheumatic disease

Social support refers to interpersonal exchanges that provide information, emotional reassurance, material assistance, and a sense of continued self-esteem. The family is an important source of support, but this can also be provided by friends and health professionals. Social support from friends and family can bolster the coping efforts of patients, particularly those with severe pain and disability. Patients who receive more support from friends and family exhibit greater self-esteem, psychological adjustment, and life satisfaction, cope more effectively, and are less depressed. Social support also has been shown to affect immune functioning. Family support can serve as an adjunct to professional treatment. Support from family members has been shown to enhance the effects of psychological treatment and help patients maintain initial treatment gains. Emotional support is most beneficial during periods of great illness-related stress. Requesting social support does...

Narrative Approach to Personality

128 Since the dichotomy of self-concept versus image is of paramount importance for psychotherapy, numerous terms in different languages (that frequently are not readily translatable) have been introduced to address it. In English, the term per-sona(e) is sometimes used to refer to the social role(s) a person may play. However, we decided for the more neutral term image in order to avoid the baggage persona carries due to its origin in archetypal psychology. To avoid possible misreading of our discussion about images in the main text above, it is in order, however, to point out some more things pertaining to ideal self-images Just as the ideal self-image does not describe how I actually see myself, it also must not be confused with how I want others to see me - in those mere images I may create of myself. Persons also try to act according to their ideal self-image, just like in the case of a mere image . However, in doing this, they do normally not want to deceive others about their...

Tfeqre Tfeqdi Tfeqhu Op Sipa Siphm Siprp Sipsi Ghrich Hada Hadd Macl Se Ql

HAD, Hospital Anxiety and Depression scale A, anxiety symptoms D, depression symptoms. MACL, Mood Adjective Check List. SE, Self-esteem. QL, Overall quality of life HAD, Hospital Anxiety and Depression scale A, anxiety symptoms D, depression symptoms. MACL, Mood Adjective Check List. SE, Self-esteem. QL, Overall quality of life

Devices used in corrective surgeries during adolescence

The period of adolescence makes up most of the second decade of life. Guidance issued by the CDRH, defining the pediatric age range up to 21 years, supports the consideration that issues of physical and hormonal growth and emotional behavioral development should be carefully addressed with device use in adolescent patients 63 . Human factors in device use should be considered as teenagers strive to become independent and take over their own medical care. One cannot always assume there will be parental supervision and goodjudgment in the use of medical devices. This is an age group known for its risk-taking behavior and noncompliance. Also, teens have heightened concerns about their bodily appearance and self-image. It is important to understand the patient motivation and expectation for having surgery 52,53 . An increasing demand for plastic surgical procedures may in part be related to increased media coverage about enhancing cosmetic procedures. Appropriate selection of patients and...

Management Outcome and Complications

Ranges between 2 and 3 , but for emergency procedures, a mortality of 23 has been reported. A depression may occur in the first period probably due to the new perception of the self-image and to the suspension of steroids medication. The most frequent complications in the early post-operative period are perineal sepsis and bleeding from the perineal wound, which are conservatively treated a persistent sepsis or bleeding from the abdomen or the pelvis may require a second laparotomy. The loss of a large volume of fluid and electrolytes through the ileosto-my may represent a serious problem, particularly in the first days after the post-operative ileus has resolved therefore, it may be necessary to continue intravenous infusion to replace fluid loss. In some cases, chronic ileostomy diarrhoea occurs and the patients need to increase the volume of fluid and electrolyte intake. As the follow-up lengthens, an increased incidence of urolithiasis is reported, probably related to the extent...

Middle Phase Altering Cognitions

A whole series of cognitions may contribute to the maintenance of obesity, such as the attitude toward eating, poor self-esteem and the way they perceive and experience their bodies. The Spiegel & Spiegel technique (1978) described earlier, where suggestions are given that 'overeating is harmful and poisons the body', may help the patient to change their attitude toward overeating. Meanwhile, patients can once again become conscious of feelings of hunger and satiation, which can be suggested systematically during the trance (Kroger, 1970). Obese patients very often have strong feelings of inferiority, they feel weak and powerless against their problem. They may perceive and experience their body as a great threat and even have feelings of disgust toward their body. During hypnosis, ego-strengthening suggestions can be made in order to favorably influence the sense of self-esteem (Brown & Fromm, 1987). And now that you imagine yourself beginning to lose weight, you may become more and...

Behavioral Disorders Anxiety Disorders

Anxiety is a feeling of fear, worry, uneasiness, or dread. It may be associated with physical problems or drugs and is often prompted by feelings of helplessness or loss of self-esteem. Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) is characterized by chronic excessive and uncontrollable worry about various life circumstances, often with no basis. It may be accompanied by muscle tensing, restlessness, dyspnea, palpitations, insomnia, irritability, or fatigue.

The Epidemic of Obesity

In addition to the health care costs of obesity, social stigma, discrimination, and low self-esteem are common problems among patients with obesity (Myers and Rosen 1999). This stigmatization can lead to psychological distress and could exacerbate illness in the vulnerable, psychotic individual. The stigma of mental illness combined with that of being overweight or obese is a significant burden for patients suffering from both conditions.

The Integrative Period The Acceptance Of Hypnosis And The Integration Of Technique And Theory

Then, beginning in the late 1980s and extending into the 1990s, Murray-Jobsis further developed and expanded specialized techniques for working with the severely disturbed patient, based on a developmental psychoanalytic framework and designed to supply missing developmental experiences. Building on therapy techniques and clinical work begun in 1976, Murray-Jobsis developed and elaborated techniques of nurturance in hypnotic imagery for the development of bonding and a positive relational capacity and for the formation of a positive self-image. In addition, imagery techniques utilizing hypnosis to foster separation-individuation based on mastery and competence rather than abandonment were also developed. These techniques were based on a developmental framework and emphasized the creation of 'healing scripts'. With these 'healing scripts' patients were encouraged to create positive imaginary past experiences as a restitution for missing or developmentally damaging past real-life...

Clinical Aspects Of Narcolepsy

Narcolepsy remains an under- and misdiagnosed condition, in part due to the misperception that it is an extremely rare disorder. However, the prevalence of narcolepsy-cataplexy approximates that of Multiple Sclerosis (MS) and Parkinson's Disease (PD)23 and may be as high as 20-60 per 100,000 people in the Western countries.24 Furthermore, as symptoms often emerge during adolescence, the development of social skills and self-esteem, as well as academic achievement may be adversely affected. Moreover, individuals may be reluctant to disclose symptoms fully,

The Management Of Chronic Stress

Because personality characteristics such as perfectionism and obsessiveness get in the way, patients need to be encouraged to be flexible in evaluating the situation. They need to develop the ability to perceive the range of complete or partial solutions. They need to be assisted to choose between the possible solutions, in the knowledge that while they may desire to get it right, if they do not they will simply make another choice or consider it a learning experience. They need to see that their self-esteem or self-worth is not related to finding the perfect solution. Indecision and passivity are presented as being worse than trying an inadequate solution that can be changed later if unsuccessful. The realistic recognition that life is problematic and challenging is encouraged. Some experiences such as the death of a loved one are to be coped with and survived as part of the vicissitudes of life. A willingness to deal with the unsolvable is a necessary part of coping with the...

Recovered Memories

We know that sexual and or physical abuse against children and adults is destructive of mental health, self-esteem and personal relationships. It is a fact also that reports of abuse long after the events are reported to have occurred are difficult to prove or disprove in the majority of cases. Independent corroboration is for the most part impossible. It is therefore essential that clinicians exercise special care in dealing with clients, their family members, and the wider community when allegations of past abuse are made.

Fertility and IBD

One frequently asked question by young patients suffering from IBD concerns its possible impact on fertility 5, 6 . Generally, the infertility rate is similar to that in the healthy population, which is more or less 8-10 . However, epidemiologic studies show that these patients deliver fewer children than the general population. This fact might be ascribable to reduced fertility due to physical damage caused by the disease and by a decision not to have children because of difficulty developing interpersonal relationships due to poor self-image of their body and their sexuality and fears regarding pregnancy.

Depressive episode

In typical mild, moderate, or severe depressive episodes, the patient suffers from lowering of mood, reduction of energy, and decrease in activity. Capacity for enjoyment, interest, and concentration is reduced, and marked tiredness after even minimum effort is common. Sleep is usually disturbed and appetite diminished. Self-esteem and self-confidence are almost always reduced and, even in the mild form, some ideas of guilt or worthlessness are often present. The lowered mood varies little from day to day, is unresponsive to circumstances and may be accompanied by so-called somatic symptoms, such as loss of interest and pleasurable feelings, waking in the morning several hours before the usual time, depression worst in the morning, marked psychomotor retardation, agitation, loss of appetite, weight loss, and loss of libido. Depending upon the number and severity of the symptoms, a depressive episode may be specified as mild, moderate or severe.


An overview of psychoanalysis would be incomplete, and all the poorer, without consideration of the contributions of attachment theory. Early Freudian and Kleinian thinking were dominated by a psychology of absence. Attachment theorists and, more broadly, those psychoanalyti-cally oriented developmental researchers have contributed a much-needed ''psychology of presence'' (Stern, 2000). Developmental research has devoted close attention to the quality of the child-caregiver bond showing its implications for the child's development of affect regulation, self-esteem, interpersonal functioning and overall mental health.

Patients Public

Extensive information into the problem of patient delay and implications for potentially reducing this delay became available with the results of the REACT research program, which were reported in 1998 at the AHA's Scientific Sessions. REACT was a 4-yr, multisite community intervention study funded by the NHLBI to learn more about whether patient delays in seeking care for heart attack symptoms could be reduced through a community-wide heart attack awareness campaign to educate providers, patients, and the public about heart attack symptoms and appropriate action steps, and to determine the impact on patient-associated delay time and on EMS systems. The REACT study comprised five academic field centers and a coordinating center at New England Research Institute. Each field center identified two community pairs matched on demographic characteristics totaling 20 communities (10 pairs) of medium-sized population. One community of each pair was randomized to a multifaceted education...

F515 Nightmares

Dream experiences loaded with anxiety or fear. There is very detailed recall of the dream content. The dream experience is very vivid and usually includes themes involving threats to survival, security, or self-esteem. Quite often there is a recurrence of the same or similar frightening nightmare themes. During a typical episode there is a degree of autonomic discharge but no appreciable vocalization or body motility. Upon awakening the individual rapidly becomes alert and oriented.

Sex Discrimination

Sexual harassment is another form of overt sexism. While sexual harassment happens to both men and women, it is a more common experience for women. Sexual harassment can be exhibited either physically or verbally. For example, one women described how male coworkers gathered around her, grabbing her breast and crotch they drew obscene pictures of her with her name attached and placed them on cars and one exposed himself to her. This type of behavior is frequently institutionalized, accepted as the norm, and ignored by many companies. It may lead to demoralization and decreased self-esteem in women (Benokraitis, 1997). Also, women are likely to avoid situations that are oppressive or in which there is a likelihood of sexual harassment (Swim, Cohen, & Hyers, 1998). Thus, workplace environments that place women in compromising situations may lead to reduced productivity, feelings of incompetence and inferiority, and low job satisfaction. Experiences of sexist discrimination can cause a...


At any given time, 15-20 of physicians are defendants in malpractice lawsuits. The average lawsuit takes more than 3 years from inception to resolution. The experience can destroy a physician's health, family relationships, standing in the community, self-confidence, and financial security. There have even been suicides where objective evaluation indicated that the physician was not guilty of wrongdoing. Risk managers have been criticized for advising strategies that are too time-consuming. Yet, when considering the alternatives, they may be time well spent. The future is uncertain. New laws, rules, and court decisions continue to create additional responsibilities and risks for physicians. Physicians are best advised to anticipate and prepare for change.

Nonspecific Defenses

Even animals as primitive as sponges have the ability to recognize and maintain self-integrity. Scientists have broken apart two different sponges of the same species in a blender, intermixing the separated cells in a dish. Cells crawled away from nonself cells and toward self cells, reaggregating into clusters of organized tissues containing cells of only one particular individual. Phagocytic cells that engulf and destroy foreign invaders were first identified by a scientist who had impaled a starfish larva on a thorn. He observed that, over time, large cells moved to surround the thorn, apparently trying to engulf and destroy it, recognizing it as nonself. Even earthworms have the ability to recognize and reject skin grafts from other individuals. If the graft comes from another worm of the same population, the skin is rejected in about eight months, but rejection of skin from a worm of a different population occurs in two weeks. Phagocytic cells in earthworms have immunolog-ical...

Research On Hypnosis

The literature on obesity has been swamped in recent years with very pessimistic and negative treatment results, especially regarding the long-term outcome of treatment (Garner & Wooley, 1991). Unlike the situation with anorexia nervosa and bulimia, hypnotherapists have been intensively engaged in the treatment of obesity (see Vanderlinden & Vandereycken, 1988). Many success stories have been reported in the hypnotherapeutic literature, but these are often reports on a very small number of patients. In addition, they deal with short-term treatment results, and long-term follow-up data are almost completely lacking (Mott & Roberts, 1979 Wadden & Anderton, 1982). Apart from this, most researchers use only one criterion for evaluation, namely weight reduction, while alterations in psychological characteristics such as body image, self-esteem and other criteria are totally

Plastic Surgery

A plastic surgeon with a cosmetically oriented practice needs to market his or her skills and successes. Dentists specializing in cosmetic or aesthetic dentistry are in somewhat the same situation in terms of being interviewed by prospective patients and having to sell the case. Often, people self-refer, based on a successful outcome of a friend or relative, but the quest for an idealized self-image and the desire to restore one's youthful appearance cause many women (83 percent of plastic surgery patients are women) to interview a number of plastic surgeons.


Although, from a medical point of view, the rheumatic diseases may differ in regard to presentation and treatment, they are all associated with several psychosocial coping tasks. These include (a) pain, (b) disability and loss of role functioning (real and anxiety over anticipated losses), (c) increased risk for depression, (d) ongoing and often frustrating interactions with the health care system, (e) the need to adhere to a prescribed and often changing treatment regimen, (f) changes in life-style and appearance, (g) changes in interpersonal relationships, (h) the need to tolerate uncertainty, and (i) in some, the possibility of death. Patients also must work to maintain their self-esteem, mastery, and interpersonal relationships. As symptoms, disease course, and prognosis are unpredictable and may change over time, the salience of these coping tasks changes as well. However, the need to tolerate uncertainty is an ever-present issue and one that can be both frustrating and...


Sexuality does and should continue to be an important part of life for people with MS. Sexuality affects your basic feelings of self-esteem and your views of yourself as masculine or feminine. It provides pleasure and relaxation, and it is an important aspect of relationships with a spouse or significant other because sharing a sexual life strengthens the attachment between partners.

Behavioral Problems

An approach to this group of concerns requires the establishment of specific objectives. These might include improved coping, allaying of anxiety, and facilitating improved self-esteem with the aid of self-hypnosis, rather than expecting problem resolution as one might reasonably expect in treating habits. Analogously, self-hypnosis training focusing on control and relaxation is an effective adjunct in management of adjustment disorders, in building self-esteem through ego-strengthening, and as a key element of overall stress management.

Faecal Incontinence

The severity of incontinence can range from unintentional elimination of flatus to seepage of liquid faecal matter or, sometimes, to the complete evacuation of bowel contents. These events can be a cause of considerable embarrassment for patients, affecting in the long run their self-esteem and causing in turn social isolation and a poorer quality of life 6 . To maintain normal faecal continence, it is important to preserve the neuromuscular integrity of the rectum, anus and adjoining pelvic floor musculature. It follows that incontinence occurs when there is disruption of one or more mechanisms that maintain continence the disruption is to such an extent that other mechanisms are unable to compensate. Incontinence in patients affected by IBD and by FAP is caused by 5

Self Psychology

Kohut has been one of the most powerful, controversial figures in the American psychoanalytic movement. His ideas grew primarily out of his work with patients with narcissistic disorders. Narcissistic disorders are personality disorders characterised by a weak or unstable sense of self and a corresponding difficulty in regulating self-esteem. Unlike Freud who believed that narcissistic patients were not amenable to psychoanalysis because they were too self-absorbed to engage with the positive transference thought necessary for treatment, Kohut believed that such patients were amenable to treatment but they required some adaptations to standard analytic technique. While Kohut was heavily influenced by his work with narcissistic patients in the development of his theory, over time, his theory and technique have been applied to all forms of psychopathology. For Kohut, self-cohesion is the primary motivation guiding human behaviour. At the root of anxiety is the self's experience of a...

The Surgiholic

A patient who has had various plastic surgery procedures performed and who is a surgiholic often is attempting to compensate for a poor self-image with repeated surgeries. In addition to the implications of such a personality pattern, the surgeon is also confronted with a more difficult anatomical situation because of the previous surgeries. He or she also risks unfavorable comparison with previous surgeons. Often, the percentage of achievable improvement is not worth the risk of the procedure.

Unplanned Endings

Often the patient's experience of feeling misunderstood by his therapist is a manifestation of a negative transference and requires interpretation. Nevertheless, occasionally therapies come to an unexpected end as a result of an unhelpful ''fit'' between patient and therapist that should not be attributed either primarily or exclusively to the patient's pathology or to his particular transference. We all recognise that ''fit'' is an important variable in therapy, even if a poorly understood one. There is no reason to suppose that just because someone is a therapist she can reach all patients in equally helpful ways. In fact, most therapists would recognise that they work more effectively with some patients than others. It is therefore important to remain alert to the possibility that the patient's wish to end therapy with us is not always a form of resistance to be interpreted and ascribed to his psychopathology. This requires self-integrity and supervision as any rejection by a...

Linus Pauling

By 1936, Pauling had used his approach to explain everything from the structure of benzene to the properties of metals, and he felt that he understood almost everything he needed to know about the chemical bond. His self-confidence, which had been growing since he went to Oregon Agricultural College, now assumed legendary proportions. He was the brightest young star in the world of chemistry, and he behaved like it. He had a new private office, a larger laboratory, and twice the number of graduate students and postdoctoral fellows of any other Caltech chemist. He traveled often, teaching one term each year at Berkeley (where he became friends with G. N. Lewis, whose papers

Types Of Defences

Any behaviour or feeling3 can be used defensively, that is, whatever allows for an alleviation of psychic pain belongs under the heading of defence. Brenner (1982) suggests that ''modes of defence are as diverse as psychic life itself''. It is the psychic function of a behaviour or feeling that determines whether it is being used defensively, for example, whether it protects self-esteem.

Exaggerated Gagging

Breathing, the oral cavity must be entirely unobstructed. Since dental instruments obstruct the cavity, a sense of suffocation overcomes the patient, and a gag reflex manifests itself. Secondly, situational factors inducing previous gagging may lead the patient to believe that s he is 'prone to gagging.' Finally, clinicians who label the patient as a 'chronic gagger' reinforce the patient's self-image as a gagger. Now, feeling rested and refreshed, as though waking up from a very pleasant nap, let the eyes open in a few moments Let that inner smile grow

John M Mathis

Percutaneous vertebroplasty is indicated in patients who exhibit pain resulting from vertebral compression fractures (VCFs) that are due to the weakening associated with bone mineral loss secondary to osteoporosis and who are not effectively treated by medical or conservative therapy (i.e., analgesics, bed rest, external bracing, etc.).16,17,21-33 Without PV, chronic pain in these individuals typically lasts from 2 weeks to 3 months.34 The chronic debilitation, limitation of activity, and decline in quality of life resulting from these fractures has been shown to result in depression, loss of self-esteem, and physical impairment. Recent data reveal that vertebral compression fractures are associated with an increased mortality of 25 to 30 compared with age-matched controls.35


As Steven Hyman put it in his presentation to the Council There are symbolic messages to children about self-efficacy. Behavioral control comes from a bottle. We have the problem of anabolic steroids for the soul. (cited in President's Council on Bioethics 2003 92) Another moral argument is the matter of brain doping Loss, disappointment, and rejection still sting, but not as much or as long, and one can cope with them with less disturbance of mind. Sensitivity also declines, along with obsession, compulsion, and anxiety, while self-esteem and confidence rise. Fear, too, is reduced, and one is more easily able to experience pleasure and accept risk. Mental agility, energy, sleep, and appetite become more regular, typically increasing. And mood brightens - though not to the point of perpetual bliss or anywhere near it. People do indeed feel better. (President's Council on Bioethics 2003 245)


Converse wish, within the same patient, to maintain the status quo due, tor example, to the threat of the therapy to the patient's self-esteem or the patient's need to keep the pain alive (i.e. secondary gain). Often the patient both wants to get better and stay the same. In some rare cases, as Joseph points out, some patients are ''against understanding (1983 139-140).


Dysthymic disorder involves at least 2 years of a depressed mood that occurs for most of the day on more days than not. At least two of the following symptoms must be present poor appetite or overeating insomnia or hypersomnia low energy or fatigue low self-esteem poor concentration or difficulty making decisions feelings of hopelessness. Additional criteria to be met The person has never been without the symptoms for more than 2 months at a time, and the mood disturbance is not easily distinguished from the person's usual functioning. (In contrast, a major depressive episode represents a change from the person's previous functioning.) Rheumatic disease affects the ability to perform regular activities of daily life, such as child care, cleaning, personal hygiene, and sports. For many women, loss of the valued roles of care giver and nurturer leads to a decline in self-worth. Patients should be reassured that decreases in activity levels are normal, as is feeling frustrated with one's...

Training In Hypnosis

Hypnosis is particularly suited to use as an adjunct in treatment of anxiety disorders 95 of practitioners of hypnosis use it to assist in the treatment of anxiety. Hypnosis can be a powerful adjunct to desensitization and to coping rehearsal, since it attributes realism to imagined events. Arousal reduction and relaxation may be enhanced using hypnotic procedures. Self-hypnosis techniques or hypnotic interventions have proved useful in simple phobias, for panic patients and in the treatment of agoraphobia. As Frankel and Orne (1976) have noted, phobic patients tend to be more hypnotizable than other patients or the general population. Apart from general anxiety reduction, hypnotic techniques may be applied to re-establish a sense of self-worth and self-esteem. For behavioural problems indirect approaches are used. These might include improved coping, allaying of anxiety, and facilitating improved self-esteem with the aid of self-hypnosis, rather than expecting problem resolution as...

Anxiety Disorders

Management of the anxiety disorders may include psychotherapy, pharmacotherapy or both. The primary goals of psychological and hypnotically based therapies for the treatment of anxiety disorders are the exposure of the patient (via imagery or reality) to the situation provoking the anxiety (thereby allowing deconditioning, habituation or desensitization) cognitive re-evaluations of the situation to alter the perception of threat determining the personal significance (symbolic) of the stress or anxiety provocation increasing the sense of self-efficacy in the patient's ability to deal with the stress-eliciting situation and the stress or anxiety symptoms and the rehearsal of coping strategies. Despite the applicability and efficacy of hypnosis-based behavioral, cognitive and other psychotherapy interventions, there is a need to understand patient differences and to individualize treatment interventions (Jackson & Stanley, 1987). There is a need to bear this in mind when deciding on...


The second is detachment or dissociation. People tend to compartmentalize aspects of experience. Trauma can be thought of as a sudden discontinuity in experience. In traumatic circumstances, what is normally a smooth continuum of experience suddenly becomes a discontinuity. This can be reflected by a discontinuity in mental function. Often one's self-image is radically altered by the traumatic experience the loss of control, sense of vulnerability, indignity, and fear can suddenly create a radically different view of self. This can lead to a compartmenta-lization of these different aspects of experience.