Serotonin and Dopamine Interactions in Rodents and Primates Implications for Psychosis and Antipsychotic Drug Development

Gerard J. Marek

I. Introduction 166

II. Dopamine and 5-HT Receptors 167

III. Psychomotor Stimulants: A Dopamine-Serotonin Interaction

IV. Monoaminergic Nuclei Interactions 170

V. Serotonin and Dopamine in the Thalamus 172

VI. Dopamine and Serotonin in the Striatum 174

VII. Dopamine and Serotonin in the Hippocampal Formation 176

VIII. Dopamine and Serotonin in the Prefrontal Cortex/Neocortex 177

IX. Animal Models 181

X. Conclusions 183

References 183

Cholinergic Circuits and Signaling in the Pathophysiology of Schizophrenia

Joshua A. Berman, David A. Talmage, and Lorna W. Role

I. Introduction 194

II. ACh in Brain Regions Implicated in Schizophrenia 195

III. Physiology of ACh Circuits and Signaling in Brain Regions

Implicated in Schizophrenia Pathology 198

IV. Developmental and Genetic Deficits in Schizophrenia That May

Influence Function and Assembly of Cholinergic Systems 203

V. Clinical and Preclinical Evidence for Deficits in Components of

Brain Cholinergic Systems in Schizophrenia 206

VI. Evidence for Cholinergic Contributions to Schizophrenia Pathophysiology from Clinical and

Preclinical Psychopharmacology 208

VII. Conclusions 213

References 214

Schizophrenia and the a7 Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor

Laura F. Martin and Robert Freedman

I. Introduction 226

II. Neurobiological and Neurogenetic Evidence for a Link Between the a7 Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor and Schizophrenia 226

III. The Prototypic a7 Nicotinic Agonist, Nicotine, and Schizophrenia... 228

IV. The Search for an a7 Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor Agonist 233

V. The Phase 1 Study of DMXBA in Schizophrenia 234

References 237

Histamine and Schizophrenia

Jean-Michel Arrang

I. Introduction 248

II. The Histaminergic Neuronal System 249

III. Changes in the Histaminergic System in Schizophrenia 264

IV. Interactions of Antipsychotic Drugs with the Histaminergic System ... 267

V. Role of Histaminergic Neurons in Schizophrenia 269

VI. Conclusions 272

References 272

Cannabinoids and Psychosis

Deepak Cyril D'Souza

I. Introduction 290

II. Ancedotal Reports 291

III. Epidemiological Studies 297

IV. Pharmacological Studies 303

V. Cannabis and Psychosis: Causality 312

VI. Cannabinoid Receptor Dysfunction and Psychotic Disorders 314

VII. Summary and Conclusions 317

References 318

Involvement of Neuropeptide Systems in Schizophrenia: Human Studies

Ricardo CAceda, Becky Kinkead, and Charles B. Nemeroff

I. Introduction 328

II. Cholecystokinin 329

III. Corticotropin-Releasing Factor 337

IV. Interleukins 344

V. Neurotensin 346

VI. Neuropeptide Y 348

VII. Opioid Peptides 349

VIII. Secretin 351

IX. Somatostatin 351

X. Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide 352

XI. Tachykinins 352

XII. Thyrotropin-Releasing Hormone 353

XIII. Other Peptides 354

XIV. Conclusions 356

References 357

Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor in Schizophrenia and Its Relation with Dopamine

Olivier Guillin, Caroline Demily, and Florence Thibaut

I. Introduction 377

II. Genetic Studies 379

III. BDNF in the Serum of Patients with Schizophrenia 382

IV. BDNF and TrkB Receptor in the Brain of

Patients with Schizophrenia 382

V. Dopamine-BDNF Interactions 385

VI. Conclusions 388

References 389

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