Viral Load and Resistance Assays

Viral load, a quantifiable measurement of how many viral particles are present in a cubic centimeter of blood, can be determined by several different assays, some of which detect as few as 50 viral particles per cubic centimeter of blood. Below that threshold of measurement, the result is reported as "nondetectable." This does not indicate that there is no virus present in blood at all, nor does it measure the amount of virus in lymphoid tissue or in the central nervous system (CNS). Viral load is a strong predictor of disease progression in untreated patients. For those on antiretroviral therapy, CD4 T cell counts are the stronger predictor of clinical outcome and are useful in monitoring clinical response to therapy (O'Brien et al. 1996). Predicting responses to antiviral medications can be accomplished by testing for drug resistance, a problem increasingly seen in clinical practice. Resistance assays fall into two classes: genotyping examines the virus for mutations known to confer drug resistance, whereas phenotyping tests the susceptibility of the patient's virus to specific medications.

Defeat Depression

Defeat Depression

Learning About How To Defeat Depression Can Have Amazing Benefits For Your Life And Success! Discover ways to cope with depression and melancholic tendencies! Depression and anxiety particularly have become so prevalent that it’s exceedingly common for individuals to be taking medication for one or even both of these mood disorders.

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