Schematic Diagrams and Service Manuals

Electronics Repair Manuals

This website allows you to find the repair manuals for any electronic devices that you could think of. You will also be able to access schematic diagrams and other useful materials for repairing electronics. You will be able to find the documents that you need to repair your TV, your DVD and VCR players, your mobile phones and cameras, and computer monitors, plus more! You will even be able to find the diagrams and repair guides for very old devices, so you don't have to worry if you think that the guide is out of print; chances are that this site will have it! You don't need to freak out now when your TV breaks down; you will be able to find the guide to repair it and have it working again in no time! Most of the guides come in easily downloadable PDF files, so you can read them on your computer, phone, or tablet! Continue reading...

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Cd3tcr Protein Complex

Schematic diagram of the TCR-CD3 complex showing the csp receptor and the CD3 complex consisting of homodimers plus -ye, , and t) heterodimers. Oppositely charged transmembrane regions facilitate ionic interactions in the TCR and CD3 chains. The long cytoplasmic tails of the CD3 chains contain a common sequence, the antigen recognition activation motif (ARAM) that functions in signal transduction. Reprinted from Cellular and Molecular Immunology, Abbas et al., 1994, with permission of W. B. Saunders Co. Figure 2. Schematic diagram of the TCR-CD3 complex showing the csp receptor and the CD3 complex consisting of homodimers plus -ye, , and t) heterodimers. Oppositely charged transmembrane regions facilitate ionic interactions in the TCR and CD3 chains. The long cytoplasmic tails of the CD3 chains contain a common sequence, the antigen recognition activation motif (ARAM) that functions in signal transduction. Reprinted from Cellular and Molecular Immunology, Abbas et al., 1994,...

Diversity in the Variable Region Domain Is Concentrated in CDRs

Hypervariable Regions

Interactions between domains in the separate chains of an immunoglobulin molecule are critical to its quaternary structure. (a) Model of IgG molecule, based on x-ray crystallographic analysis, showing associations between domains. Each solid ball represents an amino acid residue the larger tan balls are carbohydrate. The two light chains are shown in shades of red the two heavy chains, in shades of blue. (b) A schematic diagram showing the in

Properties of Human Immunodeficiency Viruses

Fig. 35-5 Schematic diagram of the HfV-1 virion The location of each of the structural proteins of the virion is shown (see text for details). The reverse transcriptase (with its associated enzyme activities) is placed in apposition to the viral RNA, which is depicted as two molecules to indicate the diploid nature of the genome, although the two are in fact linked together end to end From W C Greene, N Vjigl Mnl 324, 308 (1991) Fig. 35-5 Schematic diagram of the HfV-1 virion The location of each of the structural proteins of the virion is shown (see text for details). The reverse transcriptase (with its associated enzyme activities) is placed in apposition to the viral RNA, which is depicted as two molecules to indicate the diploid nature of the genome, although the two are in fact linked together end to end From W C Greene, N Vjigl Mnl 324, 308 (1991)

Multicompartment Circulatory System

Symbolic Diagram Circulatory System

To construct a more detailed linear model of the circulatory system, we assume that the systemic and pulmonary loops each consist of two compliance vessels, the arterial and venous systems, connected by the capillaries, a pure resistance. Further, we assume that the heart has two chambers, the left and right hearts. A schematic diagram of the model is given in Fig. 15.8. We must write equations for the flow through each of these compartments and keep track of the total volume of blood contained in the system. Unfortunately, the notation can be difficult to follow. We let subscripts a, v, s, and p denote, respectively, arterial, venous, systemic, and pulmonary. So, for example, Psa is the pressure at the entrance to the systemic arteries, and Csa is the compliance of the systemic arteries. Also, subscripts r, l, d, and s denote, respectively, right, left, diastolic Figure 15.8 Schematic diagram of the multicompartment model of the circulation. Figure 15.9 Schematic diagram of the...

Pebble Nanosensors For In Vitro Bioanalysis

A probe encapsulated by biologically localized embedding (PEBBLE), introduced by Kopelman and co-workers (Clark et al., 1999), enables optical measurement of changes in intracellular calcium levels and pH. It provides a major advancement in the field of nanoprobes and nanomedicine. PEBBLEs are nanoscale spherical devices consisting of sensor molecules entrapped in a chemically inert matrix. Figure 15.9 shows a schematic diagram of a PEBBLE nanosensor that can provide many functions. The matrix materials used for production of PEBBLES are also shown in the figure. The three matrix media used for PEBBLE technology are polyacrylamide hydrogel, sol-gel silica, and cross-linked decyl mathacrylate. These matrices have been used by Kopelman's group to fabricate sensors for H+, Ca2+, Na+, Mg2+, Zn2+, Cl-, NO2-, O2, NO, and glucose. The PEBBLE size ranges from 30 to 600nm. In the case of polyacrylamide (PAA), a nano-emulsion technique (Daubresse, 1994) similar to the reverse micelle method...

Astec Microflow Citomat

Carrier Psychrometric Charts

An acceptable relative humidity and temperature. Figure 7.4 is a schematic diagram of the Citomat system. Figure 7.4 A Schematic Diagram Showing the Operation of the Astec Microflow Citomat Gas Generator. Figure 7.4 A Schematic Diagram Showing the Operation of the Astec Microflow Citomat Gas Generator.

Long Wave and Short Wave Models

Lesser And Berkley Cochlea

Figure 23.8 Schematic diagram of the cochlea model of Siebert (1974). It differs from the model of Lesser and Berkley in the boundary conditions at x 0 and x L, where it is assumed that there is direct mechanical forcing at both ends of the membrane. Figure 23.8 Schematic diagram of the cochlea model of Siebert (1974). It differs from the model of Lesser and Berkley in the boundary conditions at x 0 and x L, where it is assumed that there is direct mechanical forcing at both ends of the membrane.

Structure of Transferrins

Lactoferrin Structure

Figure 5.1 Schematic diagram of the lactoferrin molecule. The positions of carbohydrate attachment are marked with a star. O, ovotransferrin T, human serotransferrin L, human lactoferrin R, rabbit serotransferrin M, melanotransferrin A, the connecting helix B, the C-terminal helix. The disulfide bridges are indicated by heavy bars, and the iron and carbonate binding sites by filled or open circles, respectively. Reprinted from Baker et al., 1987. Copyright (1987), with permission from Elsevier Science. Figure 5.1 Schematic diagram of the lactoferrin molecule. The positions of carbohydrate attachment are marked with a star. O, ovotransferrin T, human serotransferrin L, human lactoferrin R, rabbit serotransferrin M, melanotransferrin A, the connecting helix B, the C-terminal helix. The disulfide bridges are indicated by heavy bars, and the iron and carbonate binding sites by filled or open circles, respectively. Reprinted from Baker et al., 1987. Copyright (1987), with permission from...

The Force Velocity Relationship The Hill Model

Schematic Muscle Action Potential

Figure 18.6 A Isometric tension as a function of the length of the sarcomere. B schematic diagrams of the arrangement of the thick and thin filaments for the six different places indicated in panel A. (Gordon et al., 1966, reproduced in White and Thorson, 1975, Fig. 14.) Figure 18.6 A Isometric tension as a function of the length of the sarcomere. B schematic diagrams of the arrangement of the thick and thin filaments for the six different places indicated in panel A. (Gordon et al., 1966, reproduced in White and Thorson, 1975, Fig. 14.) Figure 18.8 Schematic diagram of Hill's two-element model for skeletal muscle. The muscle is assumed to consist of an elastic element in series with a contractile element with a given force-velocity relationship.

Multiplex PCR Amplification of Tcrb Tcrg Tcrd and Control Genes

Multiplex Pcr Analysis Str

PCR analysis of TCRG gene rearrangements. (A) Schematic diagram indicating the appropriate position and designation of V and J region primers for TCRG PCR analysis. The hatched boxes represent N regions. (B) Heteroduplex analysis of PCR products from both tube A and B PCRs. M, molecular weight marker P, polyclonal peripheral blood DNA C, clonal T-cell lymphoma DNA. Such analysis exploits the differences in the sizes of the PCR products as well as the variation in sequences. Heteroduplexes of imperfectly matched junctional sequences are seen as ill defined smears retarded in the gel whereas homoduplexes of identical junc-tional sequences are identified as narrow bands within the appropriate size range. (C) Genescan analysis of the same samples as shown in (B). PCR fragment size is plotted against fluorescent intensity. TCRG analysis of polyclonal samples for both tube A and B demonstrate four Gaussian distributions representing different gene recombinations in varying...

Photoreceptor Physiology

Photopsin Cones

Light adaptation is mediated by the cytoplasmic free Ca2+ concentration. When the light-sensitive channels close, the entry of Ca2+ is restricted, as about 10-15 of the light-sensitive current is carried by Ca2+. However, since the Na+-Ca2+, K+ exchanger continues to operate, the intracellular Ca2+ falls. This decrease in Ca2+ increases the activity of an enzyme called guanylate cyclase that makes cGMP from GTP. Thus, a decrease in Ca2+ results in an increase in the rate of production of cGMP, reopening the light-sensitive channels, completing the feedback loop. A schematic diagram of the reactions involved in adaptation is given in Fig. 22.8. Although it is likely that there are other important reactions involved in phototransduction (for instance, Ca2+ may affect the activity of PDE), the above scheme incorporates many essential features of the light response. Figure 22.7 Schematic diagram of a photoreceptor, showing the major ionic currents and pumps that regulate...

Ultradian Oscillations

Glucose Insulin Delay Equation Liver

A schematic diagram of the model is shown in Fig. 19.13. There are three pools in the model, representing remote insulin storage in the interstitial fluid, insulin in the blood, and blood glucose. As we will see, two insulin pools are necessary, which is, by itself, an interesting model prediction. There are two delays, one explicit and the other implicit. Although plasma insulin regulates glucose production, it does so only after a delay of about 36 minutes. This delay is incorporated explicitly as a three-stage linear filter. An additional implicit delay arises because glucose utilization is regulated by the Figure 19.13 Schematic diagram of the model of ultradian insulin oscillations. Figure 19.13 Schematic diagram of the model of ultradian insulin oscillations. Figure 19.16 Schematic diagram of a typical perifusion system.

Rapid Method Development

Steps Hplc Method Development

Fig. 13.5 A schematic diagram showing the stepwise procedure for rapid method development of HPLC-MS MS methods for discovery PK assays. Adapted from 10 , with permission from the American Chemical Society. Fig. 13.5 A schematic diagram showing the stepwise procedure for rapid method development of HPLC-MS MS methods for discovery PK assays. Adapted from 10 , with permission from the American Chemical Society.

Recent developments in gasphase sterilisation

Sterivap Scheme

Figure 7.1 Hose Connections for a Turbulent Isolator. A schematic diagram of the hose connections for gas sterilising a turbulent flow isolator using an open-loop gas generator such as the Sterivap or Citomat. Figure 7.1 Hose Connections for a Turbulent Isolator. A schematic diagram of the hose connections for gas sterilising a turbulent flow isolator using an open-loop gas generator such as the Sterivap or Citomat.

The Basilar Membrane as a Harmonic Oscillator

Figure 23.6 Schematic diagram of the cochlea, adapted from the model of Lesser and Berkley (1972). The cochlea is modeled as having two rectangular compartments filled with fluid, separated by the basilar membrane. The upper compartment corresponds to the scala vestibuli, and the lower compartment to the scala tympani. For simplicity, the scala media, shown in Fig. 23.1, is omitted from the model. Figure 23.6 Schematic diagram of the cochlea, adapted from the model of Lesser and Berkley (1972). The cochlea is modeled as having two rectangular compartments filled with fluid, separated by the basilar membrane. The upper compartment corresponds to the scala vestibuli, and the lower compartment to the scala tympani. For simplicity, the scala media, shown in Fig. 23.1, is omitted from the model.

Distribution Of Hcrt Efferent Axons

Hypocretin Projections

Schematic diagram of the pathways taken by Hcrt orexin axons, which widely innervate the rat brain through both ascending and descending projections.6 Copyright 1998 by the Society for Neuroscience. Figure 1. Schematic diagram of the pathways taken by Hcrt orexin axons, which widely innervate the rat brain through both ascending and descending projections.6 Copyright 1998 by the Society for Neuroscience.

Some Solutions of the Hill Model

Steps Action Potential

Figure 18.10 A Schematic diagram of the response to a step decrease in length. B Comparison of the Hill model to the data of Jewell and Wilkie (1958). The closed circles are computed from the Hill model, while the open circles are data points from two slightly different experimental procedures. (Jewel and Wilkie, 1958 reproduced in White and Thorson, 1975, Fig. 7.) Figure 18.10 A Schematic diagram of the response to a step decrease in length. B Comparison of the Hill model to the data of Jewell and Wilkie (1958). The closed circles are computed from the Hill model, while the open circles are data points from two slightly different experimental procedures. (Jewel and Wilkie, 1958 reproduced in White and Thorson, 1975, Fig. 7.)

Other Lifestyle Dietary Factors Affecting the Adult Male

Cryptorchidism Human Males

Schematic diagram to illustrate the cellular basis and general pathways via which the disorders that comprise testicular dysgenesis syndrome (TDS) are likely to arise in the human. Abnormal testicular cell differentiation function is an integral part of this syndrome of disorders, but several pathways might lead to this occurrence, including genetic, environmental, and or lifestyle factors. Note also that the resultant disorders that arise because of TDS occur with differing frequency, varying from quite common (reduced sperm production, cryptorchidism) to rare (testis germ cell cancer). Note also that some of the disorders may occur for reasons other than TDS (e.g., low sperm counts). TDS may be associated with subnormal testosterone production and or action, but note that neither the Sertoli cells nor germ cells are targets for testosterone action in fetal life (104). Fig. 3. Schematic diagram to illustrate the cellular basis and general pathways via which the disorders that...

Class I and Class II Molecules Exhibit Diversity Within a Species and Multiple Forms Occur in an Individual

Class Mhc Molecules Diagram

Conformation of peptides bound to class I MHC molecules. (a) Schematic diagram of conformational difference in bound peptides of different lengths. Longer peptides bulge in the middle, whereas shorter peptides are more extended. Contact with the MHC molecule is by hydrogen bonds to anchor residues 1 2 and 8 9. (b) Molecular models based on crystal structure of an influenza virus antigenic peptide (blue) and an endogenous peptide (purple) bound to a class I MHC molecule. Residues are identified by small numbers corresponding to those in part (a). (c) Representation of a1 and a2 domains of HLA-B27 and a bound antigenic peptide based on x-ray crystallographic analysis of the cocrystallized peptide-HLA molecule. The peptide (purple) arches up away from the p strands forming the floor of the binding cleft and interacts with twelve water molecules (spheres). Part (a) adapted from P. Parham, 1992, Nature 360 300, 1992 Macmillan Magazines Limited part (b) adapted from M. L. Silver et al.,...

The Rall Model of a Neuron

Rall Model

Figure 8.4 Schematic diagram of the Rail lumped-soma model of the neuron. First, it is assumed that the dendritic network pictured in A is equivalent to the equivalent cylinders shown in B, and that these cylinders are themselves equivalent to a single cylinder as in C. The soma is assumed to be isopotential and to behave like a resistance and capacitance in parallel, as in D. Figure 8.4 Schematic diagram of the Rail lumped-soma model of the neuron. First, it is assumed that the dendritic network pictured in A is equivalent to the equivalent cylinders shown in B, and that these cylinders are themselves equivalent to a single cylinder as in C. The soma is assumed to be isopotential and to behave like a resistance and capacitance in parallel, as in D.

Affinity of TCR for PeptideMHC Complexes Is Weak Compared with Antibody Binding

Cell Transduction

Role of coreceptors in TCR binding affinity. (a) Affinity constants for various biologic systems. (b) Schematic diagram of the interactions between the T-cell receptor and the pep-tide-MHC complex and of various accessory molecules with their ligands on an antigen-presenting cell (left) or target cell (right). Role of coreceptors in TCR binding affinity. (a) Affinity constants for various biologic systems. (b) Schematic diagram of the interactions between the T-cell receptor and the pep-tide-MHC complex and of various accessory molecules with their ligands on an antigen-presenting cell (left) or target cell (right).

Implications of Ca2 Sparks for Hypoxic Pulmonary Vasoconstriction

Schematic diagram depicting the possible Ca2+ signaling pathways in PASMCs. Abbreviations SOC, store-operated Ca2+ channels NCX, Na+-Ca2+ exchanger RyR, ryanodine receptors ClCa, Ca2+-activated CI channels, Kq,, Ca2+-activated K+ channels, Kv, voltage-gated K+ channels. Figure 3. Schematic diagram depicting the possible Ca2+ signaling pathways in PASMCs. Abbreviations SOC, store-operated Ca2+ channels NCX, Na+-Ca2+ exchanger RyR, ryanodine receptors ClCa, Ca2+-activated CI channels, Kq,, Ca2+-activated K+ channels, Kv, voltage-gated K+ channels.

Simple Circulatory System

Figure 15.6 Schematic diagram of the simplest circulation model, with a single-chambered heart and a single loop. Figure 15.6 Schematic diagram of the simplest circulation model, with a single-chambered heart and a single loop. Figure 15.7 Schematic diagram of the two-compartment model of the circulation. The heart and pulmonary system are combined into a single vessel, and the systemic capillaries are modeled as a resistance vessel. The larger arteries and veins are modeled as compliance vessels.

Left Ventricular Pseudotendon

Anterolateral Heart Ischemia

Figure 2-58 Schematic diagram of the three levels of short-axis tomographic views used in echocardiography for 16-segment wall motion analysis. A, anterior AL, anterolateral AS, anterior ventricular septum I, inferior IL, inferolateral IS, inferior ventricular septum L, lateral LV, left ventricle LVOT, left ventricular outflow tract P, posterior PL, posterolateral PS, posterior ventricular septum RV, right ventricle S, septum. The most basal segment of the inferior wall is the anatomically true posterior segment. At this level, the adjacent ventricular septum is commonly referred to as either the basal posterior septum or the basal inferior septum and the adjacent lateral wall as either the basal posterolateral wall or the basal inferolateral wall. Figure 2-58 Schematic diagram of the three levels of short-axis tomographic views used in echocardiography for 16-segment wall motion analysis. A, anterior AL, anterolateral AS, anterior ventricular septum I, inferior IL, inferolateral IS,...

Generation of Transgenic Mice

Transgenic Mice Tre

Schematic diagram of the tTA-TRE system used to generate inducible transgenic mice. tTA, tetracycline-controlled transactivator TRE, tetracycline-responsive element. Figure 1. Schematic diagram of the tTA-TRE system used to generate inducible transgenic mice. tTA, tetracycline-controlled transactivator TRE, tetracycline-responsive element.

Clinical Aspects of the Urinary System Infections

Foley Cath Removal Female

Schematic diagram of a hemodialysis system. A cellophane membrane separates the blood compartment and dialysis solution compartment. This membrane is porous enough to allow all of the constituents except the plasma proteins and blood cells to diffuse between the two compartments. (Reprinted with permission from Porth CM. Pathophysiology Concepts in Altered Health States. 6th Ed. Philadelphia Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2002.)

Retrovirus HIV1 Is the Causative Agent of AIDS

Hiv Virions

Structure of HIV. (a) Cross-sectional schematic diagram of HIV virion. Each virion expresses 72 glycoprotein projections composed of gp120 and gp41. The gp41 molecule is a transmembrane molecule that crosses the lipid bilayer of the viral envelope. Gp120 is associated with gp41 and serves as the viral receptor for CD4 on host cells. The viral envelope derives from the host cell and contains some host-cell membrane proteins, including class I and class II MHC molecules. Within the envelope is the viral core, or nucleocapsid, which includes a layer of a protein called p17 and an inner layer of a protein called p24. The HIV

Likaki E Radiologist 2011

Schematic diagram of the decomposition two-dimensional dyadic wavelet transform. In the original image, first each row is filtered and subsampled by 2, then, each column is filtered and subsampled by 2. Four subimages are obtained, called wavelet subbands, referred to as HL, LH, HH (high frequency subbands), and LL (low frequency subband). The LL subband is again filtered and subsampled to obtain four more subimages. This process can be repeated until the desired decomposition level.

Chemical and Enzymatic Methods Revealed Basic Antibody Structure

Igg Molecular Weight Light Chain

Schematic diagram of structure of immunoglobulins derived from amino acid sequencing studies. Each heavy and light chain in an immunoglobulin molecule contains an amino-terminal variable (V) region (aqua and tan, respectively) that consists of 100-110 amino acids and differs from one antibody to the next. The remainder of each chain in the molecule the constant (C) regions (purple and red) exhibits limited variation that defines the two light-chain subtypes and the five heavy-chain subclasses. Some heavy chains (7, 8, and a) also contain a praline-rich hinge region (black). The amino-terminal portions, corresponding to the V regions, bind to antigen effector functions are mediated by the other domains. The (x and heavy chains, which lack a hinge region, contain an additional domain in the middle ofthe molecule.

The Circulatory System

Circuit Diagram Cardiovascular System

Figure 15.1 Schematic diagram of the circulatory system, showing the systemic and pulmonary circulations, the chambers of the heart, and the distribution of blood volume throughout the system. (Guyton and Hall, 1996, Fig. 14-1, p. 162.) Figure 15.1 Schematic diagram of the circulatory system, showing the systemic and pulmonary circulations, the chambers of the heart, and the distribution of blood volume throughout the system. (Guyton and Hall, 1996, Fig. 14-1, p. 162.)

The Microcirculation and Filtration

Microcirculation Berne Levy

A schematic diagram of the capillary network is shown in Fig. 15.4. To get some understanding of how filtration works and why a capillary pressure drop is necessary, we use a simple one-dimensional model of a capillary. We suppose that there is an influx Qi at x 0 that must be the same as the efflux at x L, where L is the length of the capillary. At each point x along the capillary, there is blood flow q. The (hydrostatic) pressure Pc at each point along the capillary is determined by

Subfamilies of Class I Cytokine Receptors Have Signaling Subunits in Common

Schematic diagrams of the three subfamilies of class I cytokine receptors. All members of a subfamily have a common signal-transducing subunit (blue), but a unique cytokine-specific subunit. In addition to the conserved cysteines (double black lines) and WSXWS motifs (red lines) that characterize class I cytokine receptors, immu-noglobulin-like domains are present in some of these receptors. CNTF ciliary neurotrophic factor LIF OSM leukemia-inhibitory factor oncostatin. Adapted from K. Sugamura et al, 1996, Annu. Rev. Immunol. 14 179.

Vestibulo Spinal Pathways Active Versus Passive Head Motion

Spinal Vord

FIGURE 16.3. (a) Schematic diagram of the direct VCR pathway during rightward head rotation. Note that VO neurons project bilaterally to spinal motoneurons. (b) Left panel Discharge of a typical VO neuron during passive whole-body rotation. The thick solid trace superimposed on the firing rate is a VORd model fit estimated from the data. Middle panel Activity of the same VO neuron during VOR cancellation. The thick solid trace superimposed on the firing rate is a prediction based on the model estimated during passive whole-body rotation (see left panel). Right panel Activity of the example VO neuron during eye-head gaze pursuit. The model fit is a prediction based on the model estimated during passive whole-body rotation (left panel). FIGURE 16.3. (a) Schematic diagram of the direct VCR pathway during rightward head rotation. Note that VO neurons project bilaterally to spinal motoneurons. (b) Left panel Discharge of a typical VO neuron during passive whole-body rotation. The thick...

Pathways in the coordination of cellular glucose and fat metabolism

Fatty Acid Beta Oxidation Cpt1

Fig. 2.1 Schematic diagram representing the fatty acid glucose cycle and the malonyl CoA CPT-1 system involved in coordination of glucose and lipid metabolism. Fig. 2.1 Schematic diagram representing the fatty acid glucose cycle and the malonyl CoA CPT-1 system involved in coordination of glucose and lipid metabolism.

Myogenic Tone Coronary Circulation

Myogenic Response

Figure 3-26 Schematic diagram of integrated response of metabolic, myogenic and flow-mediated regulation of coronary vascular resistance and flow during increase in metabolic demand. Plus sign indicates vasodilatory feed-forward steps in response to initial increase in demand. Minus sign indicates negative-feedback processes that limit vasodilation. Events marked by lines (Production of Metabolites) occur as a reaction to metabolic or vascular changes. Bolded items are metabolic or vasoactive adjustments. (From Muller et al.200 Reprinted with permission of the publisher.) Figure 3-26 Schematic diagram of integrated response of metabolic, myogenic and flow-mediated regulation of coronary vascular resistance and flow during increase in metabolic demand. Plus sign indicates vasodilatory feed-forward steps in response to initial increase in demand. Minus sign indicates negative-feedback processes that limit vasodilation. Events marked by lines (Production of Metabolites) occur as a...

Ap and 78 TCell Receptors Structure and Roles

Schematic diagram illustrating the structural similarity between the ap T-cell receptor and membrane-bound IgM on B cells. The TCR a and p chain each contains two domains with the im-munoglobulin-fold structure. The ammo-terminal domains (Va and Vp) exhibit sequence variation and contain three hypervariable regions equivalent to the CDRs in antibodies. The sequence of the constant domains (Ca and Cp) does not vary. The two TCR chains are connected by a disulfide bond between their constant sequences the

Physiologic Barriers to Infection Include General Conditions and Specific Molecules

(a) Electronmicrograph of macrophage (pink) attack- (a) ing Escherichia coli (green). The bacteria are phagocytized as described in part b and breakdown products secreted. The monocyte (purple) has been recruited to the vicinity of the encounter by soluble factors secreted by the macrophage. The red sphere is an erythrocyte. (b) Schematic diagram of the steps in phagocytosis of a bacterium. Part a, Dennis Kunkel Microscopy, Inc. Dennis Kunkel.

Pathophysiologic Considerations

Schematic diagram showing comparison of the characteristics of vulnerable and stable plaques. Vulnerable plaques often have a well-preserved lumen because plaques grow outward initially. The vulnerable plaque typically has a substantial lipid core and a thin fibrous cap separating the thrombogenic materials such as macrophage-derived tissue factor from the blood. The nonspecific inflammatory process leads to recruitment and activation of macrophages and smooth muscle cells (SMCs), which release collagenases, degrading the protective cap. At sites of plaque rupture or erosions, increased concentration of inflammatory cells may be found, with active uptake of lipids to create foam cells. By contrast, stable plaque has a relatively thick fibrous cap protecting the often-smaller lipid core from contact with the blood. Adapted with permission from ref. 24. Fig. 1. Schematic diagram showing comparison of the characteristics of vulnerable and stable plaques. Vulnerable plaques often...

Mechanistic Model of Frequency Tuning

Steps Action Potential

Figure 23.11 Schematic diagram of a model for electrical tuning in hair cells, adapted from Hudspeth (1985). Figure 23.11 Schematic diagram of a model for electrical tuning in hair cells, adapted from Hudspeth (1985). A schematic diagram of their model is given in Fig. 23.11. Mechanical deflection of the hair bundle opens transduction channels in the hair bundle allowing the entry of positive ions, mostly K+. The consequent depolarization of the cell activates voltage-gated Ca2+ channels, and the intracellular Ca2+ concentration rises. This, in turn, opens Ca2+-sensitive K+ channels. K+ ions flow out of the cell, and the cell repolarizes. Ca2+ balance is maintained by pumps that remove Ca2+ from the hair cell. One crucial, and rather unusual, feature of the model is that K+ can both enter and leave the cell passively. Since the hair bundle projects into the scala media, the fluid surrounding the hair bundle (the endolymph in the case of hair cells in the cochlea) is of different...

Turbulent Flow Chromatography Online Fundamentals and Considerations

FIGURE 17.4 Schematic diagram of a single-column turbulent flow on-line extraction system. (Reprinted from Wells 54 . Copyright 2003, with permission from Elsevier Science.) FIGURE 17.4 Schematic diagram of a single-column turbulent flow on-line extraction system. (Reprinted from Wells 54 . Copyright 2003, with permission from Elsevier Science.)

The Postsynaptic Membrane Potential

Stevens Model Diagram

Acetylcholine acts by opening ionic channels in the postsynaptic membrane that are permeable to Na+ and K+ ions. A schematic diagram of the electrical circuit model of the postsynaptic membrane is given in Fig. 7.12. This model is based on the usual assumptions (see, for example, Chapter 2) that the membrane channels can be modeled as ohmic resistors and that the membrane acts like a capacitor, with capacitance Cm.

Overview Of Scintigraphic Imaging Instrumentation And Examples

The instrument used for the scintigraphic imaging of single photon radionuclides is known as a gamma camera (22). In the past decade, several advances in gamma camera design have provided the capability for more sophisticated preclinical and clinical testing of liposome agents (21,23-26). One advance is that three-dimensional single photon images can more easily be obtained by rotating the gamma camera around the human or animal while acquiring a set of images at each angle (27,28). This set of images is then processed in order to reconstruct a tomographic image slice. The single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) images provide improved localization of the source of radioactivity in the body. A schematic diagram of the acquisition of images using a SPECT camera is shown in Figure 1B. As with traditional gamma cameras, SPECT cameras use collimators made of lead to determine the position of the emitted photon within the body (28). After passing through a lead collimator, the...

Regulation of Intracellular [Ca2 in PASMC

Ca2 Proliferation

Schematic diagrams showing Ca2+ distribution and ion channels involved in regulating Ca2+ cyt. A Ca2t is more concentrated in the extracellular milieu and in the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) than in the cytosol. B Key ion channels involved in the regulation of Ca2+ , include the plasma membrane voltage-dependent Ca2t channels (VDCC), store-operated Ca channels (SOC), and receptor-operated Ca channels (ROC). Energy-driven transporters such as the Ca2+-ATPase and the Na+-Ca2+ exchanger are primarily responsible for Ca2+ extrusion from the cytosol. On the SR membrane, ryanodine (RyR) and inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3) receptors act as Ca2+ release pathways from the SR while a Ca2+-ATPase pump is responsible for Ca2+ re-uptake and replenishing of SR Ca2+ stores. Figure 2. Schematic diagrams showing Ca2+ distribution and ion channels involved in regulating Ca2+ cyt. A Ca2t is more concentrated in the extracellular milieu and in the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) than in the...

Application of Genetargeted Mouse Technology

Schematic diagram of sequence-replacement, gene-targeting strategy used to generate knock-out (A) and knock-in (B) mice. Neo, neomycine resistant gene. Figure 2. Schematic diagram of sequence-replacement, gene-targeting strategy used to generate knock-out (A) and knock-in (B) mice. Neo, neomycine resistant gene.

Chemosensitizing Drugs as Immunosensitizing Agents

Even though most advanced malignant tumor cells are resistant to chemotherapeutic drugs and cytotoxic immune cells, in many instances, low levels of the same or different drugs could sensitize resistant tumor cells to immune-mediated apoptosis 33-36 . Sensitization by chemotherapeutic drugs has also been documented in cells that express the drug efflux pump, p-glycoprotein 37 . These observations suggest that the sensitizing property of chemotherapeutic drugs may be distinct from their direct apoptosis-inducing effect. Several proposed mechanisms of immunosensitization have been reported, including transcriptional upregulation of pro-apoptotic proteins and downregulation of anti-apoptotic proteins 38 . The protein expression activity of signaling molecules and regulatory proteins involved in both the receptor-mediated proteins and the mitochondrial pathways have been suggested to be modulated by the drugs (see schematic diagram in Fig. 6.1). Other possible mechanisms for...

The Two Pool Model

One of the earliest models for IP3-dependent Ca2+ release assumes the existence of two distinct internal Ca2+ stores, one of which is sensitive to IP3, the other of which is sensitive to Ca2+ (Kuba and Takeshita, 1981 Goldbeter et al., 1990 Goldbeter, 1996). Agonist stimulation leads to the production of IP3, which releases Ca2+ from the IP3-sensitive store through IP3 receptors. The Ca2+ that is thereby released stimulates the release of further Ca2+ from the Ca2+-sensitive store, possibly via ryanodine receptors. A crucial assumption of the model is that the concentration of Ca2+ in the IP3-sensitive store remains constant, as the store is quickly refilled from the extracellular medium. A schematic diagram of the model is given in Fig. 5.3. Figure 5.3 Schematic diagram of the two-pool model of Ca2+ oscillations Figure 5.3 Schematic diagram of the two-pool model of Ca2+ oscillations

Genome and Plasmid

Lm contains a single, circular chromosome with 36-42 G + C content (3). Based on macrorestriction enzyme (NotI and Ssel) fragment length analysis, the total length of a Lm serotype 1 2c strain genome was calculated to be 3150 kb (6). NotI and AscI restriction fragment length analysis of ScottA (serotype 4b) (7) and EGD (seroptype 1 2a) (8) strains also resulted in similar genome sizes. All these groups used PFGE and DNA hybridization data to create a circular physical map of Lm and identified several gene locations on these maps. Based on the data published by these three groups, a schematic diagram of the Lm physical genomic map is presented in Figure 1. From this figure it is clear that although the total length of the genome is similar, the location of NotI fragments in the Scott A strain is different from the ones obtained from LO28 (1 2c) and EGD (1 2a) strains.

Control of M Phase

We can now describe a piece of the cell cycle regulating mitosis in oocytes. A schematic diagram of this regulation is shown in Fig. 13.9. Cyclin B is synthesized from amino acids and binds with free Cdc2 to form an inactive MPF dimer. The dimer is quickly phosphorylated on threonine-167 (by a protein kinase called CAK) and de-phosphorylated at the same site by an unknown enzyme. Simultaneously, Wee1 can phosphorylate the dimer at the tyrosine-15 site, rendering it inactive, and Cdc25 can dephosphorylate the same site. Mitosis is initiated when a sufficient quantity of MPF is active. Figure 13.9 Schematic diagram of the regulatory pathway of MPF. Figure 13.11 Schematic diagram of the regulation of cyclin degradation.

Hplcmsms Overview

Schematic Diagram Hplc

Fig. 13.2 Schematic diagram showing the various stages and the iterative steps involved in the lead optimization process from a DMPK perspective. This schematic represents the iterative process that is an important part of the lead optimization process. The in vitro and in vivo screens refer to DMPK assays. Reprinted from 12 , with permission from Taylor and Francis Group. Fig. 13.2 Schematic diagram showing the various stages and the iterative steps involved in the lead optimization process from a DMPK perspective. This schematic represents the iterative process that is an important part of the lead optimization process. The in vitro and in vivo screens refer to DMPK assays. Reprinted from 12 , with permission from Taylor and Francis Group.

Two Variable Models

Action Potential Steps

There is considerable value in studying systems of equations that are simpler than the Hodgkin-Huxley equations but that retain many of their qualitative features. This is the motivation for the FitzHugh-Nagumo equations and their variants. Basically, the FitzHugh-Nagumo model extracts the essential behavior of the Hodgkin-Huxley fast-slow phase-plane and presents it in a simplified form. Thus, the FitzHugh-Nagumo model has two variables, one fast (v) and one slow (w). The fast variable has a cubic nullcline and is called the excitation variable, while the slow variable is called the recovery variable and has a nullcline that is monotonically increasing. The nullclines have a single intersection point, which, without loss of generality, may be assumed to be at the origin. A schematic diagram of the phase-plane is given in Fig. 4.15, where we introduce some of the notation used later in this section.

Ryanodine Receptors

Outline Muscle Cell Contraction

Initially, we construct a linear model and determine the kinetic parameters by fitting the model to the responses following small perturbations. A schematic diagram of the model is given in Fig. 5.11. A single intracellular Ca2+ store exchanges Ca2+ with the cytoplasm (with fluxes JL2 and JP2), which in turn exchanges Ca2+ with the external medium (JL1 and JP1). Thus, Figure 5.11 Schematic diagram of the CICR model of Ca2+ oscillations in bullfrog sympathetic neurons.

Crossbridge Theory

Actin Myosin Cross Section Insect

Contraction takes place when the crossbridges bind and generate a force causing the thin filaments to slide along the thick filaments. A schematic diagram of the cross-bridge reaction cycle is given in Fig. 18.4, with the accompanying physical arrangement shown in Fig. 18.5. Before binding and contraction, ATP is bound to the crossbridge heads of the myosin (M), and the concentration of calcium is low. When the calcium concentration increases, calcium ions bind to the troponin-tropomyosin complex, ex-

Cardiac Propagation

Heart Conducting System

Conduction through the AV node is quite slow, but when the action potential exits the AV node, it propagates through a specialized collection of fibers called the bundle of HIS, which is composed of Purkinje fibers. The Purkinje fiber network spreads via tree-like branching into the left and right bundle branches throughout the interior of the ventricles, ending on the endocardial surface of the ventricles. As action potentials emerge from the Purkinje fiber-muscle junctions, they activate the ventricular muscle and propagate through the ventricular wall outward to the epicardial surface. A schematic diagram of the cardiac conduction system is shown in Fig. 11.1. Schematic diagram of the cardiac conduction system. (Rushmer, 1976, Fig. 3-9, Schematic diagram of the cardiac conduction system. (Rushmer, 1976, Fig. 3-9,

Compound Microscope

Basic Components Modern Microscope

Schematic diagram of an upright transmission microscope. (Reproduced with permission from Figure 7.3. Schematic diagram of an upright transmission microscope. (Reproduced with permission from Figure 7.4. Schematic diagrams of optical ray paths in finite-tube-length microscope and in infinity-corrected microscope. Figure 7.4. Schematic diagrams of optical ray paths in finite-tube-length microscope and in infinity-corrected microscope.

Cardiac Output

Action Potential Cardiac Cycle

Figure 15.5 Experimental data of the pressure-volume relationship during the heartbeat cycle in the denervated left ventricle of the dog. (Sagawa et al., 1978, Fig. 11.4.) A Three beats from different end-diastolic volumes and against different arterial pressures are shown in solid lines, with the broken lines representing the same beat cycles in the presence of epinephrine, which enhances the contraction. B Pressure-volume loops of the same ventricle for four different end-diastolic volumes, but against the same arterial pressure. C Schematic diagram of the pressure-volume loop (adapted from Hoppensteadt and Peskin, 1992, Fig. 5.5). a inflow valve closes, b outflow valve opens, c outflow valve closes, d inflow valve opens. Figure 15.5 Experimental data of the pressure-volume relationship during the heartbeat cycle in the denervated left ventricle of the dog. (Sagawa et al., 1978, Fig. 11.4.) A Three beats from different end-diastolic volumes and against different arterial pressures...

The Cell Membrane

Channel Protein Diagram

Figure 2.1 Schematic diagram of the cell membrane. (Davis et al., 1985, Fig. 3-1, p. 41.) Figure 2.1 Schematic diagram of the cell membrane. (Davis et al., 1985, Fig. 3-1, p. 41.) Figure 2.2 Schematic diagram of the cell membrane containing a protein carrier and a protein-lined ionic channel. (Davis et al., 1985, Fig. 3-7, p. 45.) Figure 2.2 Schematic diagram of the cell membrane containing a protein carrier and a protein-lined ionic channel. (Davis et al., 1985, Fig. 3-7, p. 45.)

Immunoglobulins

Immunoglobulins consist of two identical heavy-chain light-chain heterodimers. The constant region of the heavy chain determines the class affiliation. Figure 1 shows a schematic diagram of an IgG1 molecule with the different peptide regions, carbohydrate moieties, and disulfide bonds. The carboxy-terminal half of the light chain (CL constant light chain) is constant except for certain allotypic and isotypic variations, whereas the amino-terminal half shows sequence variability and is known as VL (variable light chain). The two subtypes of light chains (Ck and C ) can be combined with any heavy chain type ( 8, 7, a, or e) and are bound to one heavy chain via an intramolecular cystein-derived SH-group. Every light chain has two intrachain disul-fide bonds, forming so-called loops, one in the variable and one in the constant region. The constant part of the heavy chains 7, a, and 8 can be divided into three domains, each generating loops spanning about 60-70 amino acids (C7I, C72, and...

The G1 Checkpoint

Steps Action Potential

The critical chemicals for getting through the G1 and G2 checkpoints are known as S-phase promoting factor (SPF) and M-phase promoting factor (MPF), respectively. These are heterodimers because they consist of two essential subunits, a Cdk and a cyclin. A schematic diagram of the cell cycle is shown in Fig. 13.5. Figure 13.5 Schematic diagram of the primary chemical reactions of the cell cycle. Figure 13.5 Schematic diagram of the primary chemical reactions of the cell cycle.

Tcell Receptor

Tcell Receptor

Schematic diagram of the aP T-cell receptor. Each variable region contains three hypervariable regions. The structure of the yS T-cell receptor is almost identical to the aP receptor. Modified from Immunology, Kuby, 1991, W. H. Freeman & Co. Figure 1. Schematic diagram of the aP T-cell receptor. Each variable region contains three hypervariable regions. The structure of the yS T-cell receptor is almost identical to the aP receptor. Modified from Immunology, Kuby, 1991, W. H. Freeman & Co.

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