fThe skin and its associated structures, hair, nails, and glands, are derived from surface ectoderm. Melanocytes, which give the skin its color, are derived from neural crest cells, which migrate into the epidermis. The production of new cells occurs in the germinative layer. After moving to the surface, cells are sloughed off in the horny layer (Fig. 18.1). The dermis, the deep layer of the skin, is derived from lateral plate mesoderm and from dermatomes of the somites.

Hairs develop from downgrowth of epidermal cells into the underlying dermis. By about 20 weeks, the fetus is covered by downy hair, lanugo hair, which is shed at the time of birth. Sebaceous glands, sweat glands, and mammary glands all develop from epidermal proliferations. Supernumerary nipples (polythelia) and breasts (polymastia) are relatively common (see Fig. 18.4).

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Getting Back Into Shape After The Pregnancy

Getting Back Into Shape After The Pregnancy

Once your pregnancy is over and done with, your baby is happily in your arms, and youre headed back home from the hospital, youll begin to realize that things have only just begun. Over the next few days, weeks, and months, youre going to increasingly notice that your entire life has changed in more ways than you could ever imagine.

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