Suggested Reading

Blagden CS, Hughes SM: Extrinsic influences on limb muscle organization. Cell Tiss Res 296:141, 1999.

Brand-Seberi B, Christ B: Genetic and epigenetic control of muscle development in vertebrates. Cell Tiss Res 296:199, 1999

Braun T, Arnold HH: Myf5 and MyoD genes are activated in distinct mesenchymal stem cells and determine different skeletal muscle lineages. EMBOJ 15:310, 1996.

Chevallier A, Kieny M, Mauger A: Limb-somite relationship: origin of the limb musculature. JEmbryol Exp Morphol 41:245, 1977.

Christ B, Jacob M, Jacob HJ: On the origin and development of the ventrolateral abdominal muscles in the avian embryo. Anat Embryol 166:87, 1983.

Cossu G, et al.: Activation of different myogenic pathways: myf5 is induced by the neural tube and

MyoD by the dorsal ectoderm in mouse paraxial mesoderm. Development 122:429, 1996. Levi AC, Borghi F, Garavoglia M: Development of the anal canal muscles. Dis Colon Rectum 34:262, 1991.

Noden DM: The embryonic origins of avian cephalic and cervical muscles and associated connective tissues. Am J Anat 168:257, 1983. Noden DM: Craniofacial development: new views on old problems. AnatRec 208:113, 1984. Noden DM: Interactions and fates of avian craniofacial mesenchyme. Development 103:121, 1988.

Development Intraembryonic Mesoderm

At the end of the third week, intraembryonic mesoderm on each side of the midline differentiates into a paraxial portion, an intermediate portion, and a lateral plate (Fig. 10.1 A). When intercellular clefts appear in the lateral mesoderm, the plates are divided into two layers: the somatic mesoderm layer and the splanchnic mesoderm layer. The latter is continuous with mesoderm of the wall of the yolk sac (Fig. 10.1 B). The space bordered by these layers forms the intraembryonic cavity (body cavity). At first the right and left sides of the intraembryonic cavity are in open connection with the extraembryonic cavity, but when the body of the embryo folds cephalocaudally and laterally, this connection is lost (Figs. 10.2, A-E). In this manner a large intraembryonic cavity extending from the thoracic to the pelvic region forms.


Ventral body wall defects in the thorax or abdomen may involve the heart, abdominal viscera, and urogenital organs. They may be due to a failure of body folding, in which case one or more of the four folds

Latera plate

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