1. A 22-year-old woman consumes large quantities of alcohol at a party and loses consciousness; 3 weeks later she misses her second consecutive period. A pregnancy test is positive. Should she be concerned about the effects of her binge-drinking episode on her baby?
2. An ultrasound scan detects a large mass near the sacrum of a 28-week female fetus. What might the origin of such a mass be, and what type of tissue might it contain?
3. On ultrasound examination, it was determined that a fetus had well-developed facial and thoracic regions, but caudal structures were abnormal. Kidneys were absent, lumbar and sacral vertebrae were missing, and the hindlimbs were fused. What process may have been disturbed to cause such defects?
4. A child has polysplenia and abnormal positioning of the heart. How might these two abnormalities be linked developmentally, and when would they have originated? Should you be concerned that other defects might be present? What genes might have caused this event, and when during embryogenesis would it have been initiated?
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Alcoholism is something that can't be formed in easy terms. Alcoholism as a whole refers to the circumstance whereby there's an obsession in man to keep ingesting beverages with alcohol content which is injurious to health. The circumstance of alcoholism doesn't let the person addicted have any command over ingestion despite being cognizant of the damaging consequences ensuing from it.