[1] Strauch B, de Moura W. Digital flexor tendon sheath: an anatomic study. J Hand Surg [Am] 1985;10:785-9.

[2] Bencteux P, SimonetJ, el Ayoubi L, etal. Symptomatic palmaris longus muscle variation with MRI and surgical correlation: report of a single case. Surg Radiol Anat 2001;23:273-5.

[3] Schuurman AH, van Gils AP. Reversed palmaris longus muscle on MRI: report of four cases. Eur Radiol 2000;10:1242-4.

[4] Meyer FN, Pflaum BC. Median nerve compression at the wrist caused by a reversed palmaris longus muscle. J Hand Surg [Am] 1987;12(3):369-71.

[5] Zeiss J, Guilliam-Haidet L. MRI demonstration of anomalous muscles about the volar aspect of the wrist and forearm. Clin Imaging 1996;20:219-21.

[6] MayfieldJK. Wrist ligamentous anatomy and pathogenesis of carpal instability. OrthopClin North Am 1984;15:209-16.

[7] Bozentka DJ. Scapholunate instability. The University of Pennsylvania Orthopaedic Journal 1999;12:27-32.

[8] Berger RA. The anatomy of the ligaments of the wrist and distal radioulnar joints. Clin Orthop 2001;383:32-40.

[9] Taleisnik J. The ligaments of the wrist. J Hand Surg [Am] 1976;1:110-8.

[10] Smith DK. MR imaging of normal and injured wrist ligaments. Magn Reson Imaging Clin N Am 1995;3:229-48.

[11] Theumann NH, Pfirmann CWA, Antonio GE, etal. Extrinsic carpal ligaments: normal MR arthrographic appearance in cadavers. Radiology 2003;226:171-9.

[12] Smith DK. Dorsal carpal ligaments of the wrist: normal appearance on multiplanar reconstructions of three-dimensional Fourier transform MR imaging. AJR Am J Roentgenol 1993;161:119-25.

[13] Brown RR, Fliszar E, Cotton A, etal. Extrinsic and intrinsic ligaments of the wrist: normal and pathologic anatomy at MR arthrography with three-compartment enhancement. Radiographics 1998;18:667-74.

[14] Berger RA. The gross and histologic anatomy of the scapholunate interosseous ligament. J Hand Surg [Am] 1996;21:170-8.

Palmer AK, Werner FW. The triangular fibrocartilage complex of the wrist—anatomy and function. J Hand Surg [Am] 1981;6:153-62.

Sasao S, Beppu M, Kihara H, et al. An anatomical study of the ligaments of the ulnar compartment of the wrist. Hand Surg 2003;3:219-26.

Nishikawa S, Toh S. Anatomical study of the carpal attachment of the triangular fibrocarti-lage.J Bone Joint Surg Br 2002;84:1062-5.

Zlatkin MB, RosnerJ. MR imaging of ligaments and triangular fibrocartilage complex of the wrist. Magn Reson Imaging Clin N Am 2004;12:301-31.

Yoshioka H, Ueno T, Tanaka T, et al. High-resolution MR imaging of the triangular fibrocartilage complex (TFCC): comparison of microscopy coils and a conventional small surface coil. Skeletal Radiol 2003;32:575-81.

Sahin G, Dogan BE, Demirtas M. Virtual MR arthroscopy of the wrist joint: a new intraarticular perspective. Skeletal Radiol 2004;33:9-14.

Saupe N, Prussmann KP, Luechinger R, etal. MR imaging of the wrist: comparison between 1.5- and 3-T MR imaging—preliminary experience. Radiology 2005;234:256-64. Prendergast N, Rauschning W. Normal anatomy of the hand and wrist. Magn Reson Imaging Clin N Am 1995;3:197-212.

Totterman SM, Miller RJ. MR imaging of the triangular fibrocartilage complex. Magn Reson Imaging Clin N Am 1995;3:213-28.

Cobb TK, Dalley BK, Posteraro RH, et al. Anatomy of the flexor retinaculum. J Hand Surg [Am] 1993;18:91-9.

Zeiss J, Jakab E, Khimji T, et al. The ulnar tunnel at the wrist (Guyon's canal): normal MRI anatomy and variants. AJR Am J Roentgenol 1992;158:1081-5.

Erickson SJ, Cox IH, Hyde JS, et al. Effect of tendon orientation on MRI imaging signal intensity: a manifestation of the "magic angle'' phenomenon. Radiology 1991;181: 389-92.

Timins ME, O'Connell SE, Erickson SJ, et al. MR imaging of the wrist: normal findings that may simulate disease. Radiographics 1996;16(5):987-95.

Pfirrmann CW, Theumann NH, Chung CB, et al. What happens to the triangular fibrocartilage complex during pronation and supination of the forearm? Analysis of its morphology and diagnostic assessment with MRI arthrography. Skeletal Radiol 2001;30:677-85. Smith DK. Scapholunate interosseous ligament of the wrist: ME appearances in asymptomatic volunteers and arthrographically normal wrists. Radiology 1994;192:217-21. Smith DK, Snearly WN. Lunotriquetral interosseous ligament of the wrist: MR appearances in asymptomatic volunteers and arthrographically normal wrists. Radiology 1994;191: 199-202.

Palmer AK, Glisson RR, Werner FW. Relationship between ulnar variance and triangular fibrocartilage complex thickness. J Hand Surg [Am] 1984;9:681-2. Kang HS, Kindynis P, Brahme SK, et al. Triangular fibrocartilage and intercarpal ligaments of the wrist: MR imaging. Cadaveric study with gross pathologic and histologic correlation. Radiology 1991;181:401-4.

Mikic Z. Age changes in the triangular fibrocartilage of the wrist joint. J Anat 1978;126: 367-84.

Singer G, Ashworth CR. Anatomic variations and carpal tunnel syndrome: 10 year experience. Clin Orthop 2001;392:330-40.

Lanz U. Anatomical variations of the median nerve in the carpal tunnel. J Hand Surg [Am] 1977;2:44-53.

Siegel DB, KuzmaG, Eakins D. Anatomic investigation of the role of the lumbrical muscles in carpal tunnel syndrome. J Hand Surg [Am] 1995;20:860-3.

Schon R, Kraus E, Boller O, etal. Anomalous muscle belly of the flexor digitorum superficialis associated with carpal tunnel syndrome: case report. Neurosurgery 1992;31:969-97. Drape JL, Tardif-Chastenet de Gery S, Silbermann-Hoffman O, et al. Closed ruptures of the flexor digitorum tendons: MRI evaluation. Skeletal Radiol 1998;27:617-24.

[39] Saitoh S, Hata Y, Murakami N, et al. Scaphoid nonunion and flexor pollicis longus tendon rupture. J Hand Surg [Am] 1999;24:1211-9.

[40] Kato N, Nemoto K, Arino H, etal. Ruptures of flexor tendons at the wrist as a complication of fracture of the distal radius. Scand J Plast Reconstr Surg Hand Surg 2002;36:245-8.

[41] Concannon MJ, Duffy FJ Jr, Palmer WE, etal. Late rupture of a flexor tendon after electrical injury: localization using magnetic resonance imaging. A case report. Ann Plast Surg 1996;36:84-7.

[42] Boyes JH, Stark HH. Flexor tendon grafts in the fingers and thumb. A study of factors influencing results in cases. J Bone Joint Surg Am 1971;53:1332-42.

[43] Kumar BA, Tolat AR, Threepuraneni G, etal. The role of magnetic resonance imaging in late presentation of rupture of the flexor digitorum profundus tendon in the finger. J Hand Surg [Br] 2000;25:95-7.

[44] Rubin DA, KneelandJB, Kitay GS, etal. Flexor tendon tears in the hand: use of MRI imaging to diagnose degree of injury in a cadaver model. AJRAm J Roentgenol 1996;166:615-20.

[45] Irwin LR, Outhwaite J, Burge PD. Rupture of the flexor carpi radialis tendon associated with scapho-trapezial osteoarthritis. J Hand Surg [Br] 1992;17:343-5.

[46] RennieWR, Muller H. Linburg syndrome. Can J Surg 1998;41(4):306-8.

[47] Glajchen N, Schweitzer M. MRI features in deQuervain's tenosynovitis of the wrist. Skeletal Radiol 1996;25:63-5.

[48] WittJ, Pess G, Gelberman TH. Treatment of de Quervain's tenosynovitis. J Bone Joint Surg Am 1991;73:218-21.

[49] Viegas S. Trigger thumb of de Quervain's disease. J Hand Surg [Am] 1986;11:235-6.

[50] Watson F. Nonarthritic inflammatory problems of the hand and wrist. Emerg Med Clin North Am 1985;3:275-82.

[51] Costa CR, Morrison WB, Carrino JA. MRI features of intersection syndrome of the forearm. AJR Am J Roentgenol 2003;181:1241-9.

[52] Hanlon DP, Luellen JR. Intersection syndrome: a case report and review of the literature. J Emerg Med 1999;6:969-71.

[53] de Lima JE, Kim HJ, Albertotti F, et al. Intersection syndrome MR imaging with anatomical comparisons of the distal forearm. Skeletal Rad 2004;33:627-31.

[54] Grundberg AB, Reagan DS. Pathologic anatomy of the forearm. Intersection syndrome. J Hand Surg [Am] 1985;10:299-302.

[55] Beatty JD, Remedios D, McCullough CJ. An accessory extensor tendon of the thumb as a cause of dorsal wrist pain. J Hand Surg [Br] 2000;25:110-1.

[56] Payne AJ, Harris NJ, Kehoe NJ. Bilateral delayed extensor pollicis longus rupture following bilateral undisplaced distal radial fractures. Orthopedics 2000;23:163.

[57] Hirasawa Y, Katsumi Y, Akiyoshi T, etal. Clinical and crioangiographic studies on rupture of the E.P.L. tendon after distal radial fractures. J Hand Surg [Br] 1990;15:51-7.

[58] Bonatz E, Kramer TD, MasearVR. Rupture of the extensor pollicis longus tendon. Am J Orthop 1996;25:118-22.

[59] Skoff HD. Post fracture extensor pollicis longus tenosynovitis and tendon rupture: a scientific study and personal series. Am J Orthop 2003;32:245-7.

[60] Rockwell WB, Butler PN, Byrne BA. Extensor tendon: anatomy, injury and reconstruction. Plast Reconstr Surg 2000;106:1592-603.

[61] Kameyama M, Shiraishi T. Traumatic rupture of the extensor digitorum communis and extensor digiti minimi at the musculotendinous junction associated with volar dislocation of the distal radioulnar joint. A case report. Hand Surg 2000;5:165-8.

[62] Crimmins CA, Jones NF. Stenosing tenosynovitis of the extensor carpi ulnaris. Ann Plast Surg 1995;35:105-7.

[63] Xarchas KC, Leviet D. Non rheumatoid closed rupture of extensor carpi ulnaris tendon. Report of a case in a professional athlete. Acta Orthop Belg 2002;68(4):399-402.

[64] Wang C, Gill TJ 4th, Zarins B, et al. Extensor carpi ulnaris tendon rupture in an ice hockey player: a case report. Am J Sports Med 2003;31(3):459-61.

[65] Taleisnik J. Current concepts review: carpal instability. J Bone Joint Surg Am 1988;70: 1262-7.

[66] Taleisnik J, Linscheid RL. Scapholunate instability. In: Cooney WP, Linsheid RL, DobynsJH, editors. The wrist: diagnosis and operative treatment. Philadelphia: Mosby; 1998. p. 501-26.

[67] Dagum AB, Hurst LC, Finzel KC. Scapholunate dissociation: an experimental kinematic study of two types of indirect soft tissue repairs. J Hand Surg [Am] 1997;22:714-9.

[68] Linscheid RL, DobynsJH, BeaboutJW, etal. Traumatic instability of the wrist: diagnosis, classification and pathomechanics. J Bone Joint Surg Am 2002;84:142.

[69] Ruby LK, An KN, Linscheid RL, etal. The effect of scapholunate ligament section on scapholunate motion. J Hand Surg [Am] 1987;12:767-71.

[70] Scheck RJ, Kubitzek C, Hierner R, et al. The scapholunate interosseous ligament in MR arthrography of the wrist: correlation with non-enhanced MRI and wrist arthroscopy. Skeletal Radiol 1997;26:263-71.

[71] Scheck RJ, Romagnolo A, Hierner R, et al. The carpal ligaments in MR arthrography of the wrist: correlation with standard MRI and wrist arthroscopy. J Magn Reson Imaging 1999;9: 468-74.

[72] Zanetti M, Bram J, HodlerJ. Triangular fibrocartilage and intercarpal ligaments of the wrist: does MR arthrography improve standard MRI? J Magn Reson Imaging 1997;7:590-4

[73] Zlatkin MB, Chao PC, Osterman AL, et al. Chronic wrist pain: evaluation with high-resolution MR imaging. Radiology 1989;173:723-9.

[74] De Krom MC, Knipschild PG, Kester AD, etal. Carpal tunnel syndrome: prevalence in the general population. J Clin Epidemiol 1992;45(4):373-6.

[75] ZeissJ, Skie M, Ebraheim N, etal. Anatomic relations between the median nerve and flexor tendons in the carpal tunnel: MRI evaluation in normal volunteer. AJR Am J Roentgenol 1989;153:533-6.

[76] Rempel D, Dahlin L, Lundborg G. Pathophysiology of nerve compression syndrome: response of peripheral nerves to loading. J Bone Joint Surg Am 1999;81:1600-10.

[77] Mauer UM, Rath SA. Stress-induced carpal tunnel syndrome in athletes. Schweiz Z Sportmed 1992;40:131-5.

[78] Lorei MP, Hershman EB. Peripheral nerve injuries in athletes. Treatment and prevention. Sports Med 1993;16:130-47.

[79] Krivickas LS, Wilbourn AJ. Peripheral nerve injuries in athletes: a case series of over 200 injuries. Semin Neurol 2000;20(2):225-32.

[80] Boninger ML, Robertson RN, Wolff M, et al. Upper limb nerve entrapments in elite wheelchair racers. Am J PhysMed Rehabil 1996;75(3):170-6.

[81] KatzJN, Larson MG, Sabra A, et al. The carpal tunnel syndrome: diagnostic utility of the history and physical examination findings. Ann Intern Med 1990;112:321-7.

[82] Bordalo-Rodriques M, Amin P, Rosenberg ZS. MR imaging of common entrapment neuropathies at the wrist. Magn Reson Imaging Clin N Am 2004;12:265-79.

[83] Horch RE, Allman KH, LaudenbergerJ, etal. Median nerve compression can be detected by magnetic resonance imaging of the carpal tunnel. Neurosurgery 1997;41:76-82.

[84] Jarvik JG, Yuen E, Haynor DR, et al. MR nerve imaging in a prospective cohort of patients with suspected carpal tunnel syndrome. Neurology 2002;58:1597-602.

[85] Mesgarzadeh M, TrioloJ, SchneckCD. Carpal tunnel syndrome. MR imaging diagnosis. Magn Reson Imaging Clin N Am 1995;3:249-64.

[86] Murata K, Shih JT, Tsai TM. Causes of ulnar tunnel syndrome: a retrospective study of 31 subjects. J Hand Surg [Am] 2003;28:647-51.

[87] Capitani D, Beer S. Handlebar palsy—a compression syndrome of the deep terminal (motor) branch of the ulnar nerve in biking. J Neurol 2002;249:1441-5.

[88] Yoshii S, Ikeda K, Murakami H. Ulnar nerve compression secondary to ulnar artery true aneurysm at Guyon's canal. J Neurosurg Sci 1999;43(4):295-7.





Ulnar Nerve Exercises

Was this article helpful?

0 0
Cure Tennis Elbow Without Surgery

Cure Tennis Elbow Without Surgery

Everything you wanted to know about. How To Cure Tennis Elbow. Are you an athlete who suffers from tennis elbow? Contrary to popular opinion, most people who suffer from tennis elbow do not even play tennis. They get this condition, which is a torn tendon in the elbow, from the strain of using the same motions with the arm, repeatedly. If you have tennis elbow, you understand how the pain can disrupt your day.

Get My Free Ebook

Post a comment