Natural Medicine for Ringworm
Mycetoma (Madura foot) Various fungi Dermatophytes Trichophyton spp., Microsporum spp., Epidermophyton floccosum A multitude of fungi can cause chromomycosis, a chronic fungal infection usually occurring on an extremity that remains localized within the cutaneous or subcutaneous layers. Fonsecaea pedrosi is the most common isolate throughout the world. A variety of other fungi can cause mycetoma, also known as Madura foot, a localized, destructive infection of the skin, fascia, bone, and muscle. The most frequent cause of the disease in the United States is P. boydii while Madurella mycetomatis predominates in Africa and India. Fungal mycetoma must be distinguished from comparable disease caused by aerobic actinomycetes. Molds, including Trichophyton spp., Microsporum spp., and Epider-mophyton floccosum, are the causes of dermatophytosis. Classification schemes for these fungi are somewhat controversial, but there are approx 39 species that cause human disease. A fungus of special...
Therapeutic radiation is a well-recognized predisposing factor to the development of second brain tumor. Radiation-induced brain tumors have been described after low-dose scalp irradiation for tinea capitis (53) and after prophylactic cranial irradiation in acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL) in children (54,55). The risk of radiation-induced second brain tumor in patients with pituitary adenoma is 1-2 at 10 yr and 2-3 at 20 yr and may be in the form of radiation-induced
The etiologic organisms are often dictated by the site of infection in the solid organ transplant recipient (22-25). Skin infections are very common, although rarely life threatening. The most common causative agents are viral, such as herpes simplex virus (HSV) and varicella zoster virus (VZV), with other agents such as Papillomavirus and various dermatophytes being less common. The skin may also represent a target organ for disseminated infection, with a variety of bacterial (including atypical mycobacte-ria), fungal, and viral etiologies. The incidence of wound infections varies with the type of transplant, being most common in liver transplant recipients. Although S. aureus is the most common wound isolate, Gram-negative enteric organisms, coagu-lase-negative staphylococci, and rarely Mucor may also be etiologic.
Fungi are plantlike parasites without chlorophyll, subdivided into yeasts and molds. They may cause skin infections or localized or systemic internal infections. Yeasts are single cells that are much more complex than bacteria, while molds have branching filaments (hyphae) extending into host cells to obtain nutrients. Fungi that colonize the skin (dermatophytes) may cause diseases such as mange or ringworm, while yeasts infect mucous membranes or other moist surfaces. The immune response can often control or eliminate fungal infections, but such infections can be lethal in immunocompromised hosts.
Repellent, and a cure for ringworm children today paint their nails with it. It has a very bitter taste, except when ingested in minute amounts. The bitterness made it effective in inducing vomiting, but members of one tribe treated sore throats with it after compensating for the bitterness by squeezing a few drops on a lump of maple sugar so that it could be held in the mouth.
Calcofluor white This reagent is used with most specimen types to detect the presence of fungi by fluorescence microscopy. The cell walls of the fungi bind the stain and fluoresce blue-white or apple green, depending on the filter combination used with the microscope. This stain is useful for examining skin scrapings for the presence of dermatophytes and tissues and body fluids for yeast and filamentous fungi (see colorplate 45). Prepared slides of dermatophytes
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Dermatophytes (Dermatomycoses or Dermatophytoses) Dermatophytes are fungi that infect tissues containing plenty of keratin (skin, hair, nails). Classification. Dermatophytes are classified in three genera Trichophyton (with the important species T. mentagrophytes, T. rubrum, T. schoenleinii, T. tonsurans) Microsporum (M. audouinii, M. canis, M. gypseum) and Epidermophyton (E. floccosum). Some dermatophyte species are anthropophilic, others zoophilic. The natural habitat of the geophilic species M. gypseum is the soil. Morphology and culture. The dermatophytes are filamentous fungi. They grow readily on fungal nutrient mediums at 25-30 C. After 5-14 days, cultures with a woolly appearance, in different colors, usually develop (Fig. 6.8). Dermatophytes Dermatophytes Fig. 6.8 a Microsporum canis. Lactophenol blue preparation large, fusiform macroconidia. b Trichophyton mentagrophytes. Lactophenol blue preparation thin-walled, cylindrical macroconidia numerous microconidia, often in...
Griseofulvin is an antifungal agent produced by cultures of Penicillium griseofulvum and a number of other Penicillium species, including P. janczewski, P. nigrum, and P. patulum. Griseofulvin is the drug of choice for widespread or intractable dermatophyte infections, but is ineffective when applied topically. However, it is well absorbed from the gut and selectively concentrated into keratin, so may be used orally to control dermatophytes such as Epidermophyton, Microsporium, and Trichophyton. Treatment for some conditions, e.g. infections in fingernails, may have to be continued for several months, but the drug is generally free of side-effects. The antifungal action appears to be through disruption of the mitotic spindle, thus inhibiting fungal mitosis.
The original producer of penicillin discovered by Sir Alexander Fleming was Penicillium notatum current commercially used producers of penicillin are strains of Penicillium chrysogenum. Other commercially cultivated Penicillium species include P. roquefortii (used to make roquefort cheese), P. camembertii (used to make blue cheese), and P. griseofulvum (used for the production of a ringworm and athlete's foot antibiotic known as griseofulvin). 20. The original producer of penicillin discovered by Sir Alexander Fleming was Penicillium notatum current commercially used producers of penicillin are strains of Penicillium chrysogenum. Other commercially cultivated Penicillium species include P. roquefortii (used to make roquefort cheese), P. camembertii (used to make blue cheese), and P. griseofulvum (used for the production of a ringworm and athlete's foot antibiotic known as griseofulvin).
Erysipelas and cellulitis are acute spreading infections of the skin, usually involving large confluent areas and accompanied by systemic toxicity. Erysipelas is a superficial skin infection involving the cutaneous lymphatic vessels, caused most commonly by group A streptococci and occasionally by group C or G streptococci. Erysipelas most often involves the face, has a characteristic, well-demarcated appearance with raised margins, and is accompanied by systemic symptoms of fever and chills. Streptococcal cellulitis is an acute, rapidly spreading infection that extends deeper than erysipelas and involves the skin and subcutaneous tissues. Cellulitis is generally associated with diffuse erythema, pain, swelling, lymphangitis, fever, chills, and sometimes bacter-emia. Recurrent cellulitis of the extremities occurs in persons with impaired lymphatic drainage such as in lymphedema after radical mastectomy, or phlebectomy associated with coronary artery bypass surgery (CABG). An...
Other emerging infections are being recognized in severely immunocompromised patients. M. furfur is a lipophilic fungus that causes dermatophytosis in the normal host. However, as a result of its lipophilic nature, it can grow in lipid-rich solutions, including parenteral hyperalimentation supplemented with fatty acids. Immunocom-promised, especially neutropenic patients receiving such therapy, may develop Malassezia infection, manifested by follicular skin lesions or disseminated disease in the lungs and other organs. T. beigelii has also emerged as a feared fungal infection in neutropenic patients. Skin, lung, or sinus involvement can progress to disseminated disease with multifocal infection. Reversal of the neutropenia is critical to survival. Saccharomyces cerevisiae or Brewer's yeast has been recognized as a cause of vaginitis and can also rarely cause disseminated infection. Dermatophytes These mold infections are extremely common causes of superficial fungal lesions of the...
Onychomycosis tinea corporis tinea cruris tinea pedi The superficial mycotic infections occur on the surface of, or just below, the skin or nails. Superficial infections include tinea pedis (athlete's foot), tinea cruris (jock itch), tinea corporis (ringworm), onychomyco-
Cellulitis is a diffuse skin infection that involves the deep dermis and the subcutaneous fat tissues. Unlike erysipelas, which demonstrates superficial skin involvement with distinct margins, cellulitis is diffuse and spreading with no distinct demarcations. Although the inciting event typically is not discernable, predisposing factors include traumatic skin lesions, including puncture wounds, lacerations, surgical wounds, and burns prior history of cellulitis dermatophyte infections, such as tinea pedis pressure ulcers eczema dermatitis vascular insufficiency lymphedema presence of a foreign body malnutrition and immunosuppressive conditions, such as diabetes mellitus and cirrhosis 22,23 . Any cutaneous surface may be involved, but the most common site of infection is the lower extremity 24,25 . In immu-nocompetent hosts, the microorganisms most commonly implicated include Gram-positive cocci such as beta-hemolytic streptococci (particularly S pyogenes) and S aureus. In...
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