Riley J. Williams and Thomas L. Wickiewicz
Thoracolumbar, spine Shoulder
Knee,(ligamentous,,,injuries) Running, injuries,
During the past decade, the importance of regular exercise in the maintenance of good health has been well established. Consequently, with increasing attention now focused on personal fitness, the incidence of sports-related injuries has increased significantly. Both primary care physicians and specialists can expect to see a variety of athletic injuries. All clinicians should be able to recognize these conditions and administer appropriate care. A thorough history, physical examination, musculoskeletal imaging, and laboratory testing are all important in arriving at the proper diagnosis. A treatment plan is then developed for the injured athlete based on these objective findings.
I. Cervical spine. Injuries to the cervical spine range from mild to severe. Certain athletic activities (football, diving, gymnastics) are associated with an increased incidence of cervical spinal injury in comparison with other sports. Prompt recognition and treatment of persons who suffer cervical spinal injuries may prevent the progression or severity of the associated neurologic injury.
B. Classification of cervical spinal injuries. Neck injuries can be classified according to neurologic sequelae or the type of force acting on the cervical spine at the time of injury.
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