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FIGURE 4.1-7 Results of simulating a chloride axosomatic inhibitory synapse with the Simnon program, Cllnhl.t. Response of RPFM SGL with no inhibitory input. Vertical scale, arbitrary units; horizontal scale, milliseconds. Traces: 1, Ve1 (first epsp); 2, Ve2 (second epsp); 3, Hj = 1 (Hill function emulating Cl- inhibition); 4, V1 (RPFM state; note resets at pulse occurrence times); 5, y1 (spike output of RPFM); 6, Vex (RPFM input voltage). Parameters: a = b = 1; c = d = 0.5; c1 = 0.3 r/ms; Vso = 1E3; dt = 0.001, K = 50; 9 = 0.1.

FIGURE 4.1-7 Results of simulating a chloride axosomatic inhibitory synapse with the Simnon program, Cllnhl.t. Response of RPFM SGL with no inhibitory input. Vertical scale, arbitrary units; horizontal scale, milliseconds. Traces: 1, Ve1 (first epsp); 2, Ve2 (second epsp); 3, Hj = 1 (Hill function emulating Cl- inhibition); 4, V1 (RPFM state; note resets at pulse occurrence times); 5, y1 (spike output of RPFM); 6, Vex (RPFM input voltage). Parameters: a = b = 1; c = d = 0.5; c1 = 0.3 r/ms; Vso = 1E3; dt = 0.001, K = 50; 9 = 0.1.

FIGURE 4.1-8 Results of simulating a chloride axosomatic inhibitory synapse with the Simnon program, ClInh1.t. Response of RPFM SGL with one inhibitory input at t = 1 ms. Vertical scale, arbitrary units; horizontal scale, milliseconds. Traces: 1, Ve1 (first epsp); 2, Ve2 (second epsp); 3, Hj (Hill function emulating Cl- inhibition); 4, V1 (RPFM state; note resets at pulse occurrence times); 5, y1 (output of RPFM); 6, Vex (RPFM input voltage). Parameters: a = b = 1; c = d = 0.5; c1 = 0.3 r/ms; Vso = 1E3; dt = 0.001, K = 50; 9 = 0.1. No output pulses occur. Note that Vex is suppressed by Hj for t > 1 ms.

FIGURE 4.1-8 Results of simulating a chloride axosomatic inhibitory synapse with the Simnon program, ClInh1.t. Response of RPFM SGL with one inhibitory input at t = 1 ms. Vertical scale, arbitrary units; horizontal scale, milliseconds. Traces: 1, Ve1 (first epsp); 2, Ve2 (second epsp); 3, Hj (Hill function emulating Cl- inhibition); 4, V1 (RPFM state; note resets at pulse occurrence times); 5, y1 (output of RPFM); 6, Vex (RPFM input voltage). Parameters: a = b = 1; c = d = 0.5; c1 = 0.3 r/ms; Vso = 1E3; dt = 0.001, K = 50; 9 = 0.1. No output pulses occur. Note that Vex is suppressed by Hj for t > 1 ms.

axosomatic synapse will clamp the membrane potential in its vicinity to ECl and strongly inhibit firing of the SGL.

The Simnon models above do not follow the detailed, physiologically oriented, ionic conductance approach used by some workers (Koch and Segev, 1998). Rather, they use a phenomenological approach to approximate the input/output behavior of small assemblies of real neurons. Facilitation, antifacilitation, fatigue, and inhibition can all be modeled using simple ODEs and nonlinear functions.

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