Functional morphology of the compound eye of the bee

Compound Eye Bee

FIGURE 5.1-3 Schematic of a radial cross section of an ommatidium of a worker bee. Perpendicular cross sections through the retinula cells on the right. Key: CL, corneal lens; CC, crystalline cone; SPC, secondary pigment cell; PPC, primary pigment cell; VC, retinula cell; Rh, rhabdom; 9VC, the ninth visual (eccentric) cell; OC, the optical stopper formed by pigmented extensions of the four cone cells. Nature has designed this ommatidium to trap and deliver as much light as possible to the rhabdoms where transduction occurs. (From Gribakin, F.G., in The Compound Eye and Vision in Insects, G.A. Horridge, ed., Clarendon Press, Oxford, 1975. With permission.)

FIGURE 5.1-3 Schematic of a radial cross section of an ommatidium of a worker bee. Perpendicular cross sections through the retinula cells on the right. Key: CL, corneal lens; CC, crystalline cone; SPC, secondary pigment cell; PPC, primary pigment cell; VC, retinula cell; Rh, rhabdom; 9VC, the ninth visual (eccentric) cell; OC, the optical stopper formed by pigmented extensions of the four cone cells. Nature has designed this ommatidium to trap and deliver as much light as possible to the rhabdoms where transduction occurs. (From Gribakin, F.G., in The Compound Eye and Vision in Insects, G.A. Horridge, ed., Clarendon Press, Oxford, 1975. With permission.)

Compound Eyes Insects

FIGURE 5.1-4 (A) A cross sectional schematic of an ommatidium from the grasshopper Romalea. This upper or distal cross section shows six retinula cells. Key: RC, retinula cell; Rh, rhabdom; Lp, "light-pipe" extensions of cone lens, 0.5 to 2 |m diameter. (B) A cross sectional schematic of an ommatidium from Romalea. This lower or proximal cross section shows six retinula cells plus two eccentric cells. Key: RC, retinula cell; Rh, rhabdom; Lp, "light-pipe" extensions of cone lens, 0.5 to 2 |m diameter; eight axons leave the ommatidium through the basement membrane.

FIGURE 5.1-4 (A) A cross sectional schematic of an ommatidium from the grasshopper Romalea. This upper or distal cross section shows six retinula cells. Key: RC, retinula cell; Rh, rhabdom; Lp, "light-pipe" extensions of cone lens, 0.5 to 2 |m diameter. (B) A cross sectional schematic of an ommatidium from Romalea. This lower or proximal cross section shows six retinula cells plus two eccentric cells. Key: RC, retinula cell; Rh, rhabdom; Lp, "light-pipe" extensions of cone lens, 0.5 to 2 |m diameter; eight axons leave the ommatidium through the basement membrane.

the depolarization change with increasing light intensity, as well as their amplitude. Figure 5.1-7 illustrates the quasi-logarithmic vm vs. I response of Apis retinula cells. The normalized, peak vm from retinula cells exhibits nonlog behavior at low intensities, is log-linear over about 1.5 decades of intensity, then abruptly shows saturation at very high light intensities. Naka and Kishida (1966) give an empirical relation to describe the peak depolarization of retinula cells due to light flashes, with or without background illumination.

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