Jose M. Clavero, Philippe Topart, and Claude Deschamps
Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is the most common disorder of the upper gastrointestinal tract and can lead to complications such as esophagitis, stricture, ulcerations, and Barrett's esophagus. About one-quarter of patients develop complications despite adequate medical treatment. A mechanically defective lower esophageal sphincter (LES), inefficient esophageal clearance, and abnormalities that decrease gastric emptying or increase intragastric pressure have been described as the main causes for increased exposure of the esophageal mucosa to refluxed gastric juices.1 Duodenogastroesophageal reflux (DGER) is the regurgitation of duodenal contents into the stomach and esophagus.2 It is a condition intimately associated with GERD, but can also occur after previous surgical procedures such as pyloroplasty and partial or total gastrectomy.
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