Jose M. Clavero, Philippe Topart, and Claude Deschamps
Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is the most common disorder of the upper gastrointestinal tract and can lead to complications such as esophagitis, stricture, ulcerations, and Barrett's esophagus. About one-quarter of patients develop complications despite adequate medical treatment. A mechanically defective lower esophageal sphincter (LES), inefficient esophageal clearance, and abnormalities that decrease gastric emptying or increase intragastric pressure have been described as the main causes for increased exposure of the esophageal mucosa to refluxed gastric juices.1 Duodenogastroesophageal reflux (DGER) is the regurgitation of duodenal contents into the stomach and esophagus.2 It is a condition intimately associated with GERD, but can also occur after previous surgical procedures such as pyloroplasty and partial or total gastrectomy.
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Gastroesophageal reflux disease is the medical term for what we know as acid reflux. Acid reflux occurs when the stomach releases its liquid back into the esophagus, causing inflammation and damage to the esophageal lining. The regurgitated acid most often consists of a few compoundsbr acid, bile, and pepsin.