Mice and rats in which specific genes are either under or overexpressed are increasingly being used to study mechanisms of HPV. For example, HPV is impaired in mice lacking certain Kv channels (3) and increased in rats lacking the ETb receptor (21). Genetically altered animals would thus appear to offer the best of all worlds, a particular mechanism can be eliminated or elaborated and the result can be studied in the whole animal, its organs, its tissues, and its cells. However, it should be noted that introducing new DNA sequences into an animal might also affect the endogenous activities ofother genes. Thus, interpreting data collected from a transgenic animal requires consideration of the complexity of the mammalian organ system.
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