GSSH is recycled to GSH through a reduction catalyzed by glutathione reductase in the presence of NADPH forming a redox cycle.
Catalase (CAT) catalyzes the decomposition ofH202 to H20 (Equation
It shares this function with but the substrate specificity and affinity and cellular location of these two antioxidant enzymes are different. CAT is a tetramer with a molecular weight of 240 kDa. CAT is mainly localized to peroxisomes, but mitochondria and other intracellular organelles such as endoplasmic reticulum may also contain some CAT activity. It is detectable in alveolar type II pneumocytes and macrophages (14). Heme (Fe3+) is a required to be bound to the enzyme's active site for its catalytic functions. The primary function of CAT is to remove H202 produced in the peroxisomes due to enzymes such as flavoprotein dehydrogenase in the (3-oxidation of fatty acids, urate oxidase, and the metabolism of D-amino acids.
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