Psoriasis Cure Diet

Psoriasis Revolution

Psoriasis Revolution is a natural program that has been well researched by the experienced medical nutritionist and a psoriasis sufferer Dan Crawford. It is designed to guide users on how they can completely cure psoriasis and eliminate red, silvery scales, patchy itchy skin, haemorrhage and also boost the immune system, essentially a life-time solution. Psoriasis is not only a long-term solution, but also provides instant remedy to psoriasis. For example, the program can lower the burning sensation and itchiness within 24 hours. Although results will vary from one person to another, many users have reported significant results within 1 to 2 months of its use. Dan is a popular medical nutritionists, wellness adviser, research worker and a person who has suffered psoriasis for 27 years. Dan spent more than 12 years, 47,000 hours doing clinical analysis and a lot of money doing trial and error methods to develop a program that can truly cure any type of psoriasis at any level of severity. Continue reading...

Psoriasis Revolution Summary


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The Psoriasis Strategy

Psoriasis is commonly referred to as a skin condition that quickness up the life cycle of skin cells. It is a condition that causes cells to build up rapidly on the surface of the skin. The extra skin cells form white patches known as scales and red patches, which are itchy and sometimes painful. Psoriasis is not a skin problem per se, but an inflammation problem which is connected to the immune system. The inflammation of the skin is what leads to a flaky, itchy, red skin condition that people living with psoriasis are used to. People suffering from this condition experience discomfort and low self-esteem the entire time. They have problems communicating, getting into intimate relationships, and being in public because all the time, they meet new people who will notice their condition. The only time psoriasis sufferers get comfortable is when they are indoors or in forums where they are all victims of the same situation. This condition lasts longer in some patients as compared to others. Medications, ointment, among other treatments, have been offered for psoriasis patients. The medicines seem to work and relieve pain for a shorter period then the side effects become even worse. The solution is simple and is known to many people. Continue reading...

The Psoriasis Strategy Summary

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Pathophysiology of Psoriasis

Psoriasis is a multigenic, cutaneous disorder characterized by inflammation and abnormal epidermal proliferation with a prevalence of 2-3 in the general population. It is defined as a clinical entity affecting skin, nails, and in approx. 5 of the patients joints. Typical findings are keratinocyte hyperproliferation with hyper- and parakeratotic differentiation, epidermal influx of polymorphonuclear leukocytes, and the presence of a mononuclear infiltrate in the papillary dermis and in the epidermis. In contrast to type 2, psoriasis type 1 psoriasis is characterized by early onset (before age 40) and a positive family history. Several observations indicate that T lymphocytes and cytokines are of major importance in the pathogenesis of this chronic skin disease. These observations are supported by the beneficial effects of systemic administration of immunosuppressive drugs like cyclosporine A, FK506, DAB389IL-2, and anti-T-cell antibodies, known to act on T-cells and to influence the...

Immunological Effects of IL10 Therapy in Psoriasis

Immunological Therapy

Analysing the immunological effects of IL-10 therapy in psoriasis should lead to an better understanding of its antipsoriatic mode of action. It seems that IL-10 exerts its antipsoriatic activity by effects on different cell populations including T-cells and APCs as well as their mutual interaction. IL-10 is able to suppress the APC activity of monocytes macrophages and the development of dendritic cells. In fact, depressed monocytic HLA-DR and CD86 expression as well as TNF-a and IL-12 secretion capacities were observed by us during IL-10 therapy. Moreover, IL-10 led to a lasting type 1 type 2 shift (increasing proportion of IL-4, IL-5, and IL-10 producing T-cells, selective increase in IgE serum levels).1 A significant negative correlation was demonstrated between the IL-4 secretion capacity and Psoriasis Area and Severity Index score was found in our long term trial. The physiological significance of these findings was reflected by the depressed DTH reaction to recall antigens...

Clinical Effects of IL10 Therapy in Psoriasis

The powerful immunomodulatory properties of IL-10 and the promising results from IL-10 delivery on the course of several inflammatory diseases in experimental models induced the interest on clinical application of recombinant human (rh) IL-10 (ilodecakin Tenovil Schering-Plough Corp., USA) After promising data from phase 1 trials in was used in several indications including in psoriasis. The first administration of human recombined IL-10 in human was performed in 1995.9 Overall, these studies showed that IL-10 is well tolerated without serious side effects at doses up to 25 Mg kg mild to moderate flu-like symptoms were observed in a fraction of recipients at doses up to 100 Mg kg.10 Therapeutic effects of IL-10 in psoriatic patients has been studied in 7 trials so far (Table 2). Figure 2. Clinical effects of short course IL-10 therapy in established psoriasis.11 Example of a patient showing good response towards IL-10 therapy. Typical skin lesions before (A), during (B - day 15) and...

IL10 Expression in Psoriasis

Its considerable anti-inflammatory effects and its ability to act as a main suppresser of cellular immunity2 raises the question of the IL-10 expression under pathophysiological conditions, including in psoriasis. Immunohistochemical investigations suggested a low cutaneous IL-10 protein expression.3 Similar results were found by quantification of IL-10 protein in blister fluids.4 We found that the cutaneous IL-10 mRNA expression in psoriasis was significantly lower than in atopic dermatitis or cutaneous T-cell lymphoma. The level of IL-10 mRNA expression did not differ from healthy skin, even though numerous pro-inflammatory cytokines are overexpressed. These results are in particular remarkable since TNF, a major inducer of IL-10 was highly expressed. All in all this indicates a relative IL-10 deficiency in psoriasis5 which might have a genetic background.

IL10 and IL10 Receptor Polymorphisms in Psoriasis

Genetic markers in cytokine genes are becoming widely used in studies of immune-mediated disease and it is becoming apparent that they can be markers of disease susceptibility as well as of disease severity.6 When the two known polymorphic microsatellite markers in the human IL-10 promoter IL10.G and IL10.R. were investigated in psoriasis patients, no difference was noted in comparison to the control group. Also, no difference in allele distribution was observed when the psoriasis patients were stratified according to age of onset. However, a clear differential distribution was revealed when patients were grouped according to whether they had a positive family history of psoriasis. In this case, allele IL10.G13 was positively associated with familial psoriasis and this was also true when younger patients were considered - patients with age-of-onset of less than forty were three-fold more likely to have a psoriatic family background if they carried this allele. Thus, it appears that...


Psoriasis is a chronic overgrowth (hyperplasia) of the epidermis, producing large, erythematous (red) plaques with silvery scales (Fig. 21-3). The cause is unknown but there is sometimes a hereditary pattern, and autoimmunity may be involved. Psoriasis is treated with topical corticosteroids and with exposure to ultraviolet (UV) light. Severe cases have been treated with a combination of a drug, psoralen (P), to increase sensitivity to light, followed by exposure to a form of UV light (UV-A).

Noninfectious inflammatory conditions

Because of the highly inflammatory, monarticular nature of some episodes of joint inflammation associated with Reiter's syndrome or psoriatic arthritis, the clinical presentation may be indistinguishable from that of infection. The diagnosis may be supported by the presence of characteristic extraarticular features, such as a psoriasiform rash, eye inflammation, or urethritis. A history of low back symptoms or tenderness

Noninfectious inflammatory disorders

Seronegative spondyloarthropathies may be the most common causes of chronic inflammatory monarthritis. Important clinical clues include the presence of low-back or buttock pains with morning stiffness reflecting spinal involvement or inflammation of the sacroiliac joints extraarticular features, such as pitting of the nails or a scaling skin rash (psoriasis) characteristic skin lesions, such as keratoderma blennorrhagicum or circinate balanitis, associated with urethritis and conjunctivitis (Reiter's disease) a history consistent with inflammatory bowel disease (ulcerative colitis or Crohn's disease) or a history of uveitis.

Anatomy and function of the skin

Kcratinocytes make up 90 of the epidermal cells. Then-primary function is to synthesise insoluble proteins, keratins, which arc the main component of the impervious surface of the epidermis, the horny layer. Kcratinocytes are generated by division of cells in the basal layers of the epidermis and move outwards, dying in the granular cell layer before being shed at the surface as anucleated horny squames (a significant proportion of common dust). The journey from the basal layer to the surface (epidermal turnover or transit lime) takes about 60 days but is greatly accelerated in some skin conditions, for example psoriasis.

Ultraviolet Light And Lcs

External factors can also alter the immunological response in the skin. Ultraviolet light inactivates or destroys LCs in the skin (Alcalay et al., 1989). In the absence ofLCs, keratinocytes produce IL- 10 that prevents IFN-y production. Consequently, the immune response shifts to activation of Th2 cells. This T-cell subset plays a role in the induction of IgE-mediated allergic skin reactions (e.g., atopic dermatitis) and the induction of antibody-mediated autoimmune psoriasis (Nickoloff and Turka, 1994).

Deficiency of Plasmacytoid DCs in AD

Plasmacytoid DCs are CD1a negative as well as CD11c negative but positive for the a-chain of the IL-3 receptor (CD123) and the blood-dendritic cell antigen (BDCA)-2. They are equipped with specific pattern recognition receptors of the innate immune system which enable them to sense microbial pathogens and thereby defend our organism against bacterial and viral infections (Soumelis and Liu 2006). Plasmacytoid DCs in the peripheral blood of AD patients have been shown to bear the FceRI receptor on their surface which is densely occupied with IgE molecules (Novak et al. 2004a). IgE receptor expression of pDC correlates with the IgE serum levels, indicating that IgE in the micromilieu might be necessary to stabilize this structure on the cell surface of pDC. Further on, activation of FceRI on pDC counter-regulates the toll-like receptor (TLR)-9 pathway involved in the regulation of the type I IFN production, which is required for the defence against virus infections (Schroeder et al....

Other connective tissue diseases and overlap syndromes

Seronegative spondyloarthropathies (see section .I. ,B 5). In patients with psoriatic arthritis, Reiter's syndrome, or ankylosing spondylitis, a chronic phase may develop. Characteristic features include sacroiliitis, asymmetric oligoarthritis or polyarthritis of the lower extremities, and spondylitis. Even Reiter's disease, with its typical episodic flares of activity, becomes chronic in nearly 75 of patients.

Weight loss chronic cough change in bowel habits night pain or other constitutional symptoms may suggest an underlying

Similar pain or morning stiffness in other areas of the body would increase the suspicion that this represents a more generalized rheumatologic condition (e.g., ankylosing spondylitis, psoriatic arthritis, or endocrine disorder, such as hypothyroidism, hyperthyroidism, or hyperparathyroidism).

IL10 Polymorphisms and Other Autoimmune Diseases

IL-10 promoter polymorphisms have been analyzed in several auto-immune diseases. No association has been established between the different IL-10 promoter polymorphisms described above and susceptibility to psoriasis.84,85 In contrast, a predisposition for primary Sj gren Syndrome has been described in GCC (-1082 -819 -592) patient carriers.86,87 Moreover, this haplotype is associated with high levels of plasma IL-10 and seems to be related to the disease progression.86 A relationship between IL-10 microsatellite polymorphisms and biological markers of disease activity was also found in primary Sj gren Syndrome.88 In autoimmune diabetes, a study performed in one ethnic group showed that IL-10 promoter (-592A C) polymorphism was a weak determinant for susceptibility to the disease in Japanese individuals. On the other hand, IL-10 (-592) polymorphism is associated with clinical heterogeneity.89 Additionally, within the same ethnic population, the frequency of the ATA ATA (-1082 -819...

Differential diagnosis

Seronegative spondyloarthropathies characteristically present with asymmetric inflammatory disease of the large joints of the lower extremities, often with low-back disease and telltale manifestations such as psoriasis, urethritis, uveitis, or inflammatory bowel disease.

Complement And Malasseziaassociated Skin Diseases

Yeasts of the genus Malassezia (Pityrosporum) are a normal part of the skin flora, and they are most often found in sebum-rich areas of the skin such as trunk, back, face and scalp. However, Malassezia is also thought to be connected to several common dermatologic conditions like pityriasis versicolor, Malassezia folliculitis and sebor-rheic dermatitis (SD) its role in atopic dermatitis and psoriasis is less well defined (Gupta et al. 2004). SD is a superficial fungal disease presenting clinically as scaling and inflammation on the areas of the body rich in sebaceous glands with patches of red, flaking greasy skin. The pathogenesis might involve an abnormal or inflammatory immune response to these yeasts, the presence of uncommon Malassezia species or toxin production by the fungus (Gupta et al. 2004) antifungal treatment reduces the number of yeasts on the skin, leading to an improvement in seborrheic dermatitis. Malassezia made up 46 of the microbial flora in normal subjects but 83...

Diseasemodifying antirheumatic drug therapy and combination therapies

Antimalarial therapy has been associated with exfoliative skin reaction in persons with psoriasis however, recent studies have concluded that such drugs can be used safely and that they have the potential for inducing remission of PA. Hydroxychloroquine (200 mg d for 1 month followed by 400 mg d) is recommended. Hydroxychloroquine therapy probably should be considered when PA fails to respond to NSAIDs or gold. d. Immunosuppressive drugs. Oral or parenteral methotrexate is an extremely effective therapy for both the arthritic and skin manifestation of psoriasis. Evidence now exists in RA that liver biopsy is not necessary, and an algorithm has been developed to follow toxicity. Opinions are divided regarding whether toxicity to methotrexate is different in PA, and a biopsy must still be performed. This author, however, is following the American College of Rheumatology recommendations for monitoring liver toxicity in RA. A dosage of 7.5 to 25.0 mg wk (maximum dosage, 50 mg wk) is...

Khusru Asadullah W Sterry and Hans Dieter Volk Abstract

Interleukin (IL)-10 is an important immunoregulatory cytokine. One of its main biological function seems to be the limitation and termination of inflammatory responses. Remarkably, a relative deficiency in IL-10 expression is found in psoriasis, a frequent inflammatory skin disease, characterized by a type 1 cytokine pattern. Induction of IL-10 expression was found by conventional antipsoriatic therapies, suggesting that IL-10 may be a key cytokine in psoriasis and that application of this cytokine may have therapeutic effects. In first clinical trials over 3-7 weeks in patients with established psoriasis IL-10 was well tolerated and clinical efficient. In a long term trial in patients with psoriasis in remission, IL-10 therapy decreased the incidence of relapse and prolonged the disease free interval. Laboratory investigations suggest that IL-10 exerts its antipsoriatic activity by effects on different cell populations including antigen presenting cells and T-cells. IL-10 led to a...

General guidelines for rehabilitation of specific rheumatologic disorders and areas of the body

Management of active inflammatory joint or soft-tissue disease, and the amount of rest versus activity is the subject of extensive debate. Peripheral joint involvement in psoriatic arthritis, Reiter's syndrome, and colitic arthropathies should be treated in a similar manner to that in rheumatoid arthritis and juvenile rheumatoid arthritis, as noted below. The proper balance between rest and exercise is the key for successful treatment.

Psoralen Ultraviolet Light

Psoralen ultraviolet light, type A (PUVA), is used for treatment of severe psoriasis that cannot be controlled by conventional therapies, including ultraviolet light, type B. Psoriasis is a noncontagious skin disease characterized by elevated red patches on the skin, covered by a dry scale. The disease is the result of an excessive buildup of

Criteria for the classification of acute gouty arthritis9

1 It should be noted that these criteria were developed before the new classification of rheumatic diseases was adopted by the American Rheumatism Association in 1963, in which ankylosing spondylitis, psoriatic arthritis, and arthritis associated with ulcerative colitis and regional enteritis are listed as distinct from rheumatoid arthritis (Blumberg B, et al. ARA nomenclature and classification of arthritis and rheumatism. Arthritis Rheum 1964 7 93).

NK Cells in Autoimmune Disease

NK cells are not only found at sites of normal immune responses but have also been shown to accumulate in target organs of autoimmunity, for example, in the inflamed joints of RA (Dalbeth and Callan 2002 Tak et al. 1994), in brain lesions of MS (Traugott 1985), in psoriasis lesions (Cameron et al. 2002), and in the inflamed islets of Langerhans in IDDM (Miyazaki et al. 1985 Poirot et al. 2004 and our unpublished data). The presence of NK cells in target organs of autoimmunity, implying a role in disease at this site, is interesting in relation to findings reporting decreased NK cell numbers and impairment of NK cell function in peripheral blood in patients (Cameron et al. 2003 Yabuhara et al. 1996 and reviewed in Baxter and Smyth 2002 Flodstrom et al. 2002b Grunebaum et al. 1989). Data from us and others show that rodents with diabetes also have compromised peripheral NK cells (Johansson et al. 2004 Poulton et al. 2001). It is not clear whether the reported alterations in blood NK...

Consent For Ultraviolet Light Type Bphototherapy

Uvb Narrowband Burned

The side effects to ultra-phototherapy B are, during treatment the psoriasis can sometimes get temporarily worse before getting better. The skin may itch and get red due to overexposure (sunburn). The long-term risk in developing skin cancer(s) from long-term exposure to UVB is unknown. Also, long-term exposure can cause freckling and loss of skin elasticity. During the course of therapy, your skin will be evaluated. dermatologic care. Numerous studies have noted significant quality of life issues in patients with psoriasis. Psoriasis varies in severity from mild to moderate to severe disease. Mild psoriasis vul-garis involves disease activity of less than 2 body surface area, moderate disease between 2 and 10 , and severe psoriasis generally involves greater than 10 body surface area. Genetics, biochemical pathways, and the immune system are known to be involved in the pathogenesis of psoriasis. In psoriasis, faulty immune signals are thought to accelerate the skin growth cycles....

Postoperative soft tissue and joint infection

If a history and physical examination will point to a disease predisposing to infection such as diabetes, liver cirrhosis, pneumonia, tuberculosis or to local changes (colostomy, psoriasis etc), we also resort to prophylactic antibiotics when performing a percutaneous screw fixation.

Common abnormalities

Allergic Dermatitis Insect

This may be the most valuable clue to the diagnosis. For example, it is not easy to diagnose herpes ,osier by the appearance of the individual lesions, but it becomes simple once the dermatomal distribution is appreciated (Fig. 2.19A), Similarly, a photosensitive basis for a rash becomes obvious when it is noted that only exposed areas are involved and shielded areas spared (Fig. 2.19B). Some skin conditions may affect certain areas (sites of predilection) more than others. Psoriasis preferentially involves the scalp, elbows, knees, natal cleft and nails, atopic dermatitis frequently picks out the antecubital and popliteal fossae in children (Fig. 2.I9C) and seboirhoeic dermatitis is seen most often on the scalp, forehead, eyebrows, nasolabial folds and presternal area. The distribution of an eczematous rash may be the main pointer that the problem is due to a reaction from an externa contactant (Fig. 2.19D). Configuration. Having studied the overall...


These drugs are contraindicated in patients with known hypersensitivity. Hydroxychloroquine is contraindi-cated in patients with porphyria (a group of serious inherited disorders affecting the bone marrow or the liver), psoriasis (chronic skin disorder), and retinal disease (may cause irreversible retinal damage). MTX is contraindicated during pregnancy because it is a Pregnancy Category X drug and may cause birth defects

IL10 as an Anticancer Agent in the Clinical Settings

Decline in platelet counts and hemoglobin levels.1'76 Interestingly and in line with the potential anti cancer activity of IL-10 intravenous administration of human recombinant IL-10 (25 g kg) when given 1 hour after the induction of endotoxemia, produced pro-inflammatory effects by enhancing release of IFN-y, IFN-y-inducible protein and inducing activation of cytotoxic T and NK cells as reflected by increased levels of granzyme-b.15 Furthermore the safe administration of IL-10 as a therapeutic agents in inflammatory diseases and other pathologies ranging from psoriasis,1'12'77 to Crohn's disease,13 rheumatoid arthritis78 and chronic hepatitis C infection79 have made a case for the utilization of IL-10 as therapeutic modality in cancer trials.

DCommon adverse effects

Based on longitudinal data from large studies of patients treated with MTX for psoriasis and choriocarcinoma, MTX was not thought to be oncogenic. However, more than 50 cases of non-Hodgkin's B-cell lymphomas have been reported worldwide in patients taking MTX. In eight of these patients, discontinuation of MTX led to spontaneous disappearance of the lymphoma, without a need for chemotherapy. Although the exact incidence of this association is unknown, it is probably low but should be discussed with patients. It must be appreciated that RA patients already have an inherent increased risk for the development of lymphoproliferative disorders. MTX may be a cofactor, along with Epstein-Barr virus, in altering immunosurveillance capability and triggering lymphomas in some RA patients. The ACR has published a position paper regarding liver biopsy in MTX-treated RA patients. With their interpretation of the above data, they do not recommend baseline or follow-up biopsies...

Epidemiologic and genetic considerations

Axial involvement is more frequent in Crohn's disease (5 to 22 ) than in ulcerative colitis (2 to 6 ). There is no male predominance, as there is in ankylosing spondylitis, and only 50 to 70 of patients are positive for HLA-B27. In fact, the presence of ankylosing spondylitis in patients negative for HLA-B27 should predict inflammatory bowel disease or psoriatic arthritis.

Common foot problems

Plantar heel pain is one of the most common disorders seen by physicians who manage foot and ankle problems. Plantar fasciitis, an irritation of the plantar fascia at its origin on the posteromedial tubercle of the calcaneus, is the most common cause of plantar heel pain. Atrophy of the normal plantar fat pad may result in difficulty walking because of plantar heel pain. Entrapment of branches of the posterior tibial nerve as they cross in close proximity to the heel may also result in plantar heel pain. Inflammatory arthropathies (psoriatic arthritis and Reiter's syndrome RA) frequently present with plantar heel pain, often before the systemic nature of these diseases is appreciated.


Although psoriasis usually has a symmetric distribution, a solitary lesion is sometimes seen. 3. Any clinical pattern of psoriasis may be associated with psoriatic arthritis. However, nail involvement is seen in 80 of patients with arthritis and in only 30 of patients without joint involvement. C. Medications that may cause psoriasis to flare include chloroquine and lithium withdrawal of systemic corticosteroids is also a possible cause. F. Inverse psoriasis is localized to intertriginous areas. G. Guttate psoriasis is characterized by teardrop-shaped lesions on the trunk and proximal extremities it is often precipitated by a b-hemolytic streptococcal infection. H. Palmar psoriasis is characterized by scaly, erythematous patches on the palms and fingers. This form may be mistaken for a dermatophyte infection. I. Pustular psoriasis may present as localized sterile pustules of the palms, soles, or paronychial skin or as severe generalized pustules accompanied by fever, arthralgia, and...


Revisited under these premises, IL-10 role in several experimental findings apparently conflicting may result less enigmatic. For instance, as summarized in Table 1, IL-10 ability of suppressing Th1 and Th2 cells can account for the inhibitory effects on disease models (e.g., RA, psoriasis, allergy) dominated by the pathological hyperactivity of these types of immune response. On the other side, as it links and enhances some innate (NK cells) and adaptive (CTL) immunity cell mediators, IL-10 can be understandably associated with tumor regression.


In the early months of RA, edema, angiogenesis, hyperplasia of synovial lining, and inflammatory infiltrate are already present. Once the disease enters a more chronic phase, massive hyperplasia, mainly of type A synovial cells, and subintimal mononuclear cell infiltration are prominent. The synovium of RA assumes the appearance of a reactive lymph node because of the extensive infiltration by plasma cells, macrophages, and lymphocytes in the form of large lymphoid follicles. The histologic appearance of the synovium in RA, however, is not specific, as a similar picture is seen in other inflammatory arthritides, such as psoriatic arthritis and Reiter's syndrome. One characteristic feature of RA is the invasion of and damage to cartilage, bone, and tendons by an infiltrating inflammatory synovial tissue mass called the pannus.


There is an increase in both the frequency and severity of all forms of psoriasis in HIV-infected patients. This includes the vulgaris, pustular, and erythroderma forms. There is also an increase in the extra-dermatologic manifestations of the disease, including arthritis. Interestingly, the extra-dermatologic disease tends to follow patterns more commonly associated with variants of Reiter's syndrome, including an increased incidence of conjunctivitis, urethritis, and enthesopathy. No excess of HLA antigens associated with classic psoriasis has been found in this group indeed there was an increase in HLA-B27. Thus, the line between psoriatic and reactive arthropathy is indistinct in the HIV-infected population.

Vitamin A

The synthetic retinoic acids tretinoin (retinoic acid) and isotretinoin (13-cis-retinoic acid) (Figure 5.72) are retinoids that are used as topical or oral treatments for acne vulgaris, reducing levels of dehydroretinol and modifying skin keratinization. Dehydroretinol levels in the skin become markedly elevated in conditions such as eczema and psoriasis. Acitretin (Figure 5.72) is an aromatic analogue which can give relief in severe cases of psoriasis. All these materials can produce toxic side-effects.

The Future

A variety of medical concerns are now being treated with lasers and light sources. The advent of ALA-PDT has heralded a potentially new era for dermatologists and laser surgeons far beyond the treatment of AKs, BCCs, and SCCs. Now photodynamic photorejuvenation is a common term and photorejuvenation treatments are being enhanced with the use of ALA-PDT. Other entities, including acne vulgaris, hidradenitis suppurativa, and sebaceous gland hyperplasia are being treated with lasers, light sources, and ALA-PDT. Lasers and light sources are also being used to treat psoriasis vulgaris, vitiligo, and other hypopigmented disorders, including hypopigmented stretch marks. Lasers and light sources can now be used to treat both medical and cosmetic dermatologic conditions.


The leukotrienes are involved in allergic responses and inflammatory processes. An antigen-antibody reaction can result in the release of compounds such as histamine (see page 379) or materials termed slow reacting substance of anaphylaxis (SRSA). These substances are then mediators of hypersensitive reactions such as hay fever and asthma. Structural studies have identified SRSA as a mixture of LTC4, LTD4 and LTE4. These cysteine-containing leukotrienes are powerful bronchoconstrictors and vasoconstrictors, and induce mucus secretion, the typical symptoms of asthma. LTE4 is some 10-100-fold less active than LTD4, so that degradation of the peptide side-chain represents a means of eliminating leukotriene function. LTB4 appears to facilitate migration of leukocytes in inflammation, and is implicated in the pathology of psoriasis, inflammatory bowel disease, and arthritis. The biological effects of leukotrienes are being actively researched to define the cellular processes involved. This...


Synthesis Melanin Sclerotinia

Minimize the risk of burning, cataract formation, and the possibility of causing skin cancer. The treatment is often referred to as PUVA (psoralen + UV-A). PUVA is also of value in the treatment of psoriasis, a widespread condition characterized by proliferation of skin cells. Similarly, methoxsalen is taken orally, prior to UV treatment. Reaction with psoralens inhibits DNA replication and reduces the rate of cell division. Because of their planar nature, psoralens intercalate into DNA, and this enables a UV-initiated cycloaddition reaction between pyrimidine bases (primarily thymine) in DNA and the furan ring of psoralens (Figure 4.36). In some cases, di-adducts can form involving further cycloaddition via the pyrone ring, thus cross-linking the nucleic acid.

Allied Drugs

Dantron (danthron 1,8-dihydroxyanthraquinone) (Figure 3.34) is known as a natural product, but for drug use is produced synthetically. It is prescribed to relieve constipation in geriatric and terminally ill patients. Dithranol (1,8-dihydroxyanthrone) is used as topical agent to treat troublesome cases of psoriasis. Diacetylrhein is marketed in some countries for the treatment of osteoarthritis.


This chronic disease involves the skin and joints and may present at any age. There is a family history of the disease in approximately 30 of cases. Psoriasis has been estimated to affect about 2 of the population in the United States. A. Characteristics. Psoriasis is characterized by increased epidermal proliferation. The typical skin lesion is a well-delineated, raised, erythematous plaque covered by a loosely adherent silvery scale. As the scale accumulates, the lesion may even appear white. Lesions vary in size from small papules to extensive plaques and occasionally assume an annular or gyrate configuration. Lesions of psoriasis heal without scarring.

Natural Treatments For Psoriasis

Natural Treatments For Psoriasis

Do You Suffer From the Itching and Scaling of Psoriasis? Or the Chronic Agony of Psoriatic Arthritis? If so you are not ALONE! A whopping three percent of the world’s populations suffer from either condition! An incredible 56 million working hours are lost every year by psoriasis sufferers according to the National Psoriasis Foundation.

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