Solution Conditions

The solution conditions must be adjusted to ensure that the macromolecule of interest can adopt a native state and ligand-substrate complexes which are formed in the electrospray ionization (ESI) buffer will be relevant under physiological conditions. While most buffers used in electrospray are highly dissimilar to true biological environments (blood, intracellular matrices, cell walls, etc.), electrospray-compatible buffer systems that maintain nondenatured macromolec-ular structures have been derived for several target classes.

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