An important question that needs to be addressed in any screening study is the determination of whether or not the ligand is non-covalently bound to the active site of the target protein. A number of simple GPC spin column ESI-MS screening methods have been developed to answer this question. These methods include the use of mutated proteins where the active site has been modified, GPC spin column/ESI-MS coupled with NMR (GPC spin column/MS/NMR) and displacement of known binders. Titration experiments with molar excesses of ligand to protein (described below in Section 22.214.171.124.4) can also be used to determine whether single or multiple binding sites are available in the protein.
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