Many conventional methods, particularly NMR, require that the protein be specially labeled so that it can generate the signals that are a measure of concentration. Radio-labeled materials are essential when scintillation counting is used. For protein-ligand systems that do not contain chromophores or fluorophores, additional labels must be inserted into the molecules. Some affinity studies need special chemical reaction probes, and these probes may be expensive or difficult to obtain, thus hindering their application to a wide range of protein-ligand systems. PLIMSTEX, like other MS-based methods, relies on the hydrogen/
deuterium exchange of amide hydrogens that are present in all protein systems; therefore, no special labeling is necessary.
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