This syndrome is associated with renal vasoconstriction and functional changes that are potentially reversible. The mechanisms involved include alterations in endothelial function and in the regulation of vasomotor tone. Vasoconstriction leads to a reduction in glomerular filtration rate, salt and water retention and associated hypertension. Experimentally, endothelin appears to play a role in the vasoconstriction (Kon et al. 1995). Additionally, there is increased activity in the renin angiotensin system with increased numbers of granules in the juxtaglomerular apparatus and in hilar arterioles as well as increased expression of angiotensin type 1 receptors (Tufro-McReddie et al. 1993). Ciclosporin inhibits endothelial nitric oxide production (Andoh et al. 1997; Assis et al. 1997), endothelium-dependent vasodilation and the release of prostacyclin (Bossaller et al. 1989). Furthermore, it increases sympathetic-mediated vasoconstriction (Scherrer et al. 1990).
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Your heart pumps blood throughout your body using a network of tubing called arteries and capillaries which return the blood back to your heart via your veins. Blood pressure is the force of the blood pushing against the walls of your arteries as your heart beats.Learn more...