PTPs and Impact on Public Health
In the last 5 years, the PTP field has rapidly gained special interest with particular emphasis on PTP1B. Gene targeting studies in mice strongly supported that PTP1B is involved in the insulin resistance associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus (Elchebly et al. 1999a; Klaman et al. 2000a). This disease and associated disorders are becoming a serious threat to human health with a global figure of about 150 million people affected. Moreover, mutations in genes coding for different members of the PTP family have been associated with various congenital diseases (Minassian et al. 1998; Serratosa et al. 1999; Digilio et al. 2002; Legius et al. 2002; Tartaglia et al. 2002). Overexpression of several PTPs has also been observed in several human cancers, including breast and colon cancers (Tabiti et al. 1995; Lee et al. 2000; Pestell et al. 2000; Saha et al. 2001). These observations together indicate that PTPs are key factors of many different diseases with a wide impact on public health. PTPs are also critical factors for several pathogens that cause a large spectrum of diseases worldwide, amongst which typhoid fever is still responsible for 600,000 deaths annually (Pang et al. 1998) and Helicobacter pylori, which is responsible for gastric ulcer and malignancy, infects about half of the world population (Rothenbacher and Brenner 2003). Thus, selected PTPs may also represent novel targets against particular infectious diseases. In this review, we will describe the recent findings demonstrating the implication of PTPs in human diseases and health care. We will also discuss the therapeutic potential of targeting various members of the PTP family.
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Diabetes is a disease that affects the way your body uses food. Normally, your body converts sugars, starches and other foods into a form of sugar called glucose. Your body uses glucose for fuel. The cells receive the glucose through the bloodstream. They then use insulin a hormone made by the pancreas to absorb the glucose, convert it into energy, and either use it or store it for later use. Learn more...