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Nephrotic Syndrome

This clinical syndrome of oedema and hypoalbuminaemia coupled with heavy proteinuria and associated dyslipidaemia is caused by a number of renal pathologies including minimal change nephropathy, focal segmental glomer-ular sclerosis, membranous nephropathy and mesangial proliferative glo-merulonephritis. Minimal change disease often responds well to corticoste-

roid with or without cyclophosphamide, but ciclosporin is also effective and can be used in cases where a remission can only be maintained with unacceptable levels of steroid treatment or where relapses are frequent (Niaudet 1994; Bargman 1999). Combination treatment using ciclosporin and corticosteroids can be of value in focal segmental glomerulonephritis (Cattran et al. 1999). There are few data on the role of ciclosporin in treating nephrotic syndrome of other causes (Muirhead 1999).

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