Fig. 1 Phosphorylation and dephosphorylation reactions are catalysed, respectively, by protein kinases and protein phosphatases serine/threonine) and the nature of their activator. There are approximately 180 phosphatases in the human genome. Protein phosphatases are classified according to the amino acid they dephosphorylate (tyrosine or serine/threonine or dual-specificity phosphatases), and their sensitivity to various inhibitors and ions (PP1, PP2A, PP2B, PP2C) (Jackson and Denu 2001; Kennelly 2001; Sim and Ludowyke 2002; Lyon et al. 2002).
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