Specific Defenses The Immune System

Nonspecific defenses are numerous and effective, but some invaders elude them. Vertebrate animals deal with these pathogens by means of defenses targeted against specific threats. The recognition and destruction of specific nonself substances is an important function of an animal's immune system. In this section, we will first provide an overview of the main features of the immune response. We will then consider its two components: the humoral immune response, which produces antibodies, and the cellular immune response, which destroys infected cells.

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How To Bolster Your Immune System

How To Bolster Your Immune System

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