1. Genes provide recipes rather than constituting blueprints because a. genetic instructions do not specify the form of the adult organism.
b. an organism's development is not determined entirely by its genes.
c. genes take orders as well as giving orders.
d. genes encode other molecules, which in turn affect different parts of an organism.
e. all of the above
2. Genetics and developmental biology evolved without much intellectual contact during much of the twentieth century because a. developmental biologists did not believe that development was genetically controlled.
b. geneticists underestimated the degree to which the environment could influence development.
c. geneticists and developmental biologists competed for research funds and therefore emphasized the differences between their disciplines.
d. geneticists turned their attention to the heritability of traits, whereas embryologists turned their attention toward the unfolding of genetic instructions during the development of individuals.
e. the genes that control development were of little interest to geneticists because they do not influence the ability of individuals to transmit their genes to offspring.
3. Homeobox genes determine the positions of cells along a. the anterior-posterior axis of the bodies of both insect and human embryos.
b. the anterior-posterior axis of the bodies of insects, but not of vertebrates.
c. the anterior-posterior axis of the bodies of vertebrates, but not of insects.
d. the dorsal-ventral axis of the bodies of both insect and human embryos.
e. the dorsal-ventral axis of the bodies of vertebrates only.
4. Ducks have webbed feet and chickens don't because a. ducks need webbed feet to swim, whereas terrestrial chickens do not.
b. both duck and chicken embryos express BMP4 in the webbing between the toes, but the gremlin gene is expressed only in the webbing cells of ducks.
c. both duck and chicken embryos express BMP4 in the webbing between the toes, but the gremlin gene is expressed only in the webbing cells of chickens.
d. only duck embryos express BMP4 in the webbing between the toes.
e. only chick embryos express BMP4 in the webbing between the toes.
5. Modularity is important for development because it a. guarantees that all units of a developing embryo will change in a coordinated way.
b. coordinates the establishment of the anterior-posterior axis of the developing embryo.
c. allows changes in the genes to change one part of the body without affecting other parts.
d. guarantees that the timing of gene expression is the same in all parts of a developing embryo.
e. allows organisms to be built up one module at a time.
6. Organisms often respond developmentally to regularly occurring environmental signals that accurately predict future conditions by a. stopping development until the signal changes.
b. altering their development such that the resulting adult is adapted to the future environment.
c. altering their development such that the resulting adult can produce offspring adapted to the future environment.
d. producing new mutants.
e. developing normally because the predicted conditions may not last long.
7. The phenomenon wherein organisms change the relative time of appearance and rate of development of characters is called a. heterochrony.
b. developmental plasticity.
8. Daphnia with large helmets are more difficult for some predators to capture and eat, but not all Daphnia produce large helmets because a. individuals with large helmets cannot feed efficiently.
b. individuals with large helmets have trouble mating.
c. individuals with large helmets produce fewer eggs than individuals with small helmets.
d. individuals with large helmets become ensnared in vegetation.
e. some individuals lack the genes that govern helmet formation.
9. Which of the following is not an important characteristic of plants that affects their development?
a. Most plants are sessile.
b. Plant cells do not move relative to one another during development.
c. Plants produce meristems regularly as long as they grow.
d. Plants have great developmental plasticity.
e. Plants set aside germ cells early during embryonic development.
10. Which of the following plant structures does not change in response to the conditions under which a plant grows?
a. Roots b. Seeds c. Leaves d. Stems e. Branches
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