Preserving Biodiversity

The human activities that threaten species include habitat destruction, the introduction of invasive species, overexploitation, disease, alteration of disturbance patterns, and climate change. Conservation biologists determine how these activities are affecting species and use that information to devise actions to preserve species that are endangered or threatened.

Habitat loss is studied by observation and experimentation

Habitat loss is the most important cause of endangerment of species in the United States, especially species that live in fresh waters (Figure 57.2). As habitats are progressively destroyed by human activities, the remaining habitat patches become smaller and more isolated. In other words, the habitat becomes fragmented. Small habitat patches are qualitatively different from larger patches of the same habitat in ways that affect the survival of species. Small patches cannot maintain populations of species that require large areas, and they can support only small populations of many of the species that can survive in them.

Freshwater mussels

Crayfishes

Amphibians

Freshwater fishes

Flowering plants

Conifers Ferns

Tiger beetles

Dragonflies, damselflies I

Reptiles

Butterflies, skippers

Mammals Birds

Habitat destruction is the primary cause of extinction and endangerment for freshwater aquatic organisms.

Small animals are vulnerable to habitat destruction because they often have small ranges and highly specialized requirements. ^

Small animals are vulnerable to habitat destruction because they often have small ranges and highly specialized requirements. ^

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Essentials of Human Physiology

Essentials of Human Physiology

This ebook provides an introductory explanation of the workings of the human body, with an effort to draw connections between the body systems and explain their interdependencies. A framework for the book is homeostasis and how the body maintains balance within each system. This is intended as a first introduction to physiology for a college-level course.

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