N

Early in its life, a B cell produces IgM molecules, which are responsible for its recognition of a specific antigenic determinant. At this time, the constant region of the antibody's heavy chain is encoded by the first constant region gene, the ^ segment (see Figure 18.18). If the B cell later becomes a plasma cell during a humoral immune response, another deletion commonly occurs in the cell's DNA, positioning the heavy-chain variable region gene (consisting of the same V, D, and J segments) next to a constant region gene farther down the original DNA, such as the y, e, or a genes (Figure 18.20). Such a DNA deletion results in the production of an antibody with a different constant region of the heavy chain, and therefore a different function. However, the antibody produced has the same variable regions of the light and heavy chains, and therefore the same antigen specificity, as before. The new antibody falls into one of the four other immunoglobulin classes (IgA, IgD, IgE, or IgG), depending on which of the constant region genes is placed adjacent to the variable region gene.

After switching classes, the plasma cell cannot go back to making the previous immunoglobulin class, because that part of the DNA has been lost. On the other hand, if additional constant region segments are still present, the cell may switch classes again.

What triggers class switching, and what determines the class to which a given B cell will switch? TH cells direct the course of an immune response and determine the nature of the attack on the antigen. These T cells induce class switching by sending cytokine signals. The cytokines bind to receptors on the target B cells, generating a signal transduction cascade that results in altered transcription of the im-munoglobulin genes.

Constant region _a_

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