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Month

56.5 Rainy and Dry Seasons Change with Latitude In the Tropics and Subtropics, rainy and dry months are highly predictable based on the region's latitude.

Circulation Patterns Atmosphere

56.6 The Circulation of Earth's Atmosphere If we could stand outside Earth and observe its air movements, we would see vertical air circulation patterns similar to those indicated by the black arrows and surface winds similar to those shown by the blue arrows. Both the vertical and horizontal circulation patterns shift to the north during the northern summer and to the south during the northern winter.

| On the windward side of the mountain, air rises and cools, releasing moisture in the form of rain or snow.

ra On the leeward side of the mountain, air descends, warms, and picks up moisture, which results in little rain.

| On the windward side of the mountain, air rises and cools, releasing moisture in the form of rain or snow.

ra On the leeward side of the mountain, air descends, warms, and picks up moisture, which results in little rain.

Westward Leeward Side Mountains

56.7 A Rain Shadow Average annual rainfall tends to be lower on the leeward side of a mountain range than on the windward side.

56.8 Global Oceanic Circulation To see that ocean currents are driven primarily by winds, compare the surface currents shown here with the prevailing surface winds shown in Figure 56.6. Deep ocean currents differ strikingly from the surface ones shown here.

anism of heat transfer to high latitudes. As it moves toward the poles, the water veers right in the Northern Hemisphere and left in the Southern Hemisphere. Thus, water flowing toward the poles turns eastward until it encounters another continent and is deflected laterally along its shores. In both hemispheres, water flows toward the equator along the west sides of continents, continuing to veer right or left until it meets at the equator and flows westward again.

The climates created by these atmospheric and oceanic circulation patterns play key roles in determining what kinds of organisms can live in a given region, as we'll see in the next section.

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