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In addition, rates of molecular evolution are faster in organisms with short generation times than in organisms with long generation times. Short-generation organisms have more rounds of DNA replication, and thus more opportunities for errors in replication, per unit of time than long-generation organisms. For example, the rate of substitution per base per year in introns is from two to four times greater in rodents (which may reach reproductive age within 6 months and have several generations per year) than in primates (which have multi-year pre-reproductive periods and multi-year generation times).

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Essentials of Human Physiology

Essentials of Human Physiology

This ebook provides an introductory explanation of the workings of the human body, with an effort to draw connections between the body systems and explain their interdependencies. A framework for the book is homeostasis and how the body maintains balance within each system. This is intended as a first introduction to physiology for a college-level course.

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