In addition, rates of molecular evolution are faster in organisms with short generation times than in organisms with long generation times. Short-generation organisms have more rounds of DNA replication, and thus more opportunities for errors in replication, per unit of time than long-generation organisms. For example, the rate of substitution per base per year in introns is from two to four times greater in rodents (which may reach reproductive age within 6 months and have several generations per year) than in primates (which have multi-year pre-reproductive periods and multi-year generation times).
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This ebook provides an introductory explanation of the workings of the human body, with an effort to draw connections between the body systems and explain their interdependencies. A framework for the book is homeostasis and how the body maintains balance within each system. This is intended as a first introduction to physiology for a college-level course.