Plasma Membrane

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Animal Critical Temperatures

Lower Upper critical critical temperature temperature

Below the lower critical temperature, the animal produces metabolic heat to compensate for increased heat loss to the environment.

Above the upper critical temperature, the animal must expend energy to lose heat by panting or sweating, which makes its metabolic rate increase.

Below the lower critical temperature, the animal produces metabolic heat to compensate for increased heat loss to the environment.

Above the upper critical temperature, the animal must expend energy to lose heat by panting or sweating, which makes its metabolic rate increase.

41.14 Environmental Temperature and Mammalian Metabolic Rates Outside the thermoneutral zone, maintaining a constant body temperature requires the expenditure of energy. Outside extreme limits (0°C and 40°C in this instance), the animal cannot maintain its body temperature and so dies.

and generate ATP (review the discussion of the chemios-motic mechanism in Chapter 7). As a result, metabolic fuels are consumed without producing ATP, but heat is still released. Brown fat is especially abundant in newborn infants of many mammalian species, including humans, in some adult mammals that are small and acclimatized to cold, and in mammals that hibernate.

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