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In many other animals, including humans, sex is determined by a single sex chromosome, or by a pair of them. Both males and females have two copies of each of the rest of the chromosomes, which are called autosomes.
Female grasshoppers, for example, have two X chromosomes, whereas males have only one. Female grasshoppers are described as being XX (ignoring the autosomes) and males as XO (pronounced "ex-oh"):
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This ebook provides an introductory explanation of the workings of the human body, with an effort to draw connections between the body systems and explain their interdependencies. A framework for the book is homeostasis and how the body maintains balance within each system. This is intended as a first introduction to physiology for a college-level course.