Diploid worker

Diploid queen

Haploid drone

Diploid queen

Haploid drone c a a c

In many other animals, including humans, sex is determined by a single sex chromosome, or by a pair of them. Both males and females have two copies of each of the rest of the chromosomes, which are called autosomes.

Female grasshoppers, for example, have two X chromosomes, whereas males have only one. Female grasshoppers are described as being XX (ignoring the autosomes) and males as XO (pronounced "ex-oh"):

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Essentials of Human Physiology

Essentials of Human Physiology

This ebook provides an introductory explanation of the workings of the human body, with an effort to draw connections between the body systems and explain their interdependencies. A framework for the book is homeostasis and how the body maintains balance within each system. This is intended as a first introduction to physiology for a college-level course.

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