46.9 Contralateral Neglect Syndrome A person with damage to the right parietal association cortex will neglect the left side of a drawing when asked to copy a model.
As mentioned earlier, the size of the telencephalon relative to the rest of the brain increases substantially as we move up the phylogenetic scale from fishes to amphibians, to reptiles, to birds and mammals. Even when we consider only mammals, the cerebral cortex increases in size and complexity when we compare animals such as rodents, whose behavioral repertoires are relatively simple, with animals such as primates that have much more complex behavior.
The most dramatic increase in the size of the cerebral cortex took place during the last several million years of human evolution. The incredible intellectual capacities of Homo sapiens are associated with this enlargement of the cerebral cortex. Humans do not have the largest brains in the animal kingdom; elephants, whales, and porpoises have larger brains in terms of mass. If we compare brain size to body size, however, humans and dolphins top the list. Humans have the largest ratio of brain size to body size, and they have the most highly developed cerebral cortex. Another feature of the cerebral cortex that reflects increasing behavioral and intellectual capabilities is the ratio of association cortex to primary somatosensory and motor cortexes. Humans have the largest relative amount of association cortex.
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