High concentrations of some heavy metal ions, such as chromium, mercury, lead, and cadmium, poison most plants. Some geographic sites are naturally rich in heavy metals as a result of normal geological processes. In other places, acid rain leads to the release of toxic aluminum ions in the soil. Other human activities, notably the mining of metallic ores, leave localized areas—known as tailings—with substantial concentrations of heavy metals and low concentrations of nutrients. Such sites are hostile to most plants, and seeds falling on them generally do not produce adult plants.
Mine tailings rich in heavy metals, however, generally are not completely barren (Figure 40.15). They may support
healthy plant populations that differ genetically from populations of the same species on the surrounding normal soils. How can these plants survive?
Initially, some plants were thought to tolerate heavy metals by excluding them: By not taking up the metal ions, it was believed, the plants avoided being poisoned. However, measurements have shown that tolerant plants growing on mine tailings do take up heavy metals, accumulating them to concentrations that would kill most plants. Thus these plants must have a mechanism for dealing with the heavy metals they take up. Such tolerant plants may be found to be useful agents for bioremediation, a decontamination process by which the heavy metal content of some contaminated soils is decreased by living organisms.
We know the mechanism of at least one case of tolerance to a different toxic metal. When the roots of a buckwheat grown in China are exposed to aluminum concentrations high enough to inhibit root growth in other plants, they secrete oxalic acid. Oxalic acid combines with aluminum ions, forming a complex that does not inhibit growth.
From mine to mine, the heavy metals in the soil differ. In Wales and Scotland, bent grass (Agrostis) grows near many mines. Samples of bent grass from several such sites were tested for their ability to grow in various solutions, each containing only one heavy metal. In general, the plants tolerated a particular heavy metal—the one most abundant in their habitat—but were sensitive to others. That is, they tolerated only one or two heavy metals, rather than heavy metals as a group.
Tolerant plant populations can evolve and colonize an area surprisingly rapidly. The bent grass population around a particular copper mine in Wales is resistant to copper and is relatively abundant, even though the copper-rich soil dates from mining done only a century ago.
Thus plants are threatened by salt, heavy metals, and other toxic substances in their chemical environment, as well as by pathogens in their biological environment and by shortages or excesses of water in their physical environment. We now examine two more threats in the physical environment: high and low temperatures.
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This ebook provides an introductory explanation of the workings of the human body, with an effort to draw connections between the body systems and explain their interdependencies. A framework for the book is homeostasis and how the body maintains balance within each system. This is intended as a first introduction to physiology for a college-level course.