For Discussion

1. Which organelles and other structures are found in both plant and animal cells? Which are found in plant but not animal cells? In animal but not plant cells? Discuss these differences in relation to the activities of plants and animals.

2. Through how many membranes would a molecule have to pass in going from the interior of a chloroplast to the interior of a mitochondrion? From the interior of a lysosome to the outside of a cell? From one ribosome to another?

3. How does the possession of double membranes by chloro-plasts and mitochondria relate to the endosymbiosis theory of the origins of these organelles? What other evidence supports the theory?

4. Compare the extracellular matrix of the animal cell with the plant cell wall with respect to composition of the fibrous and nonfibrous components, rigidity, and presence of cytoplasmic "bridges."

5. Plastids and mitochondria may have arisen via endosymbio-sis. Propose a hypothesis for the origin of the cell nucleus.

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