For Discussion

1. Would you expect the elemental composition of Earth's crust to be the same as that of the human body? How could you find out?

2. Some scientists and science fiction writers have envisioned life on other planets based not on carbon, as on Earth, but on silicon (Si). Using the Bohr model (see Figure 2.10a), draw the structure of silicon dioxide, showing electrons shared in covalent bonds.

3. Compare a covalent bond between two hydrogen atoms and a hydrogen bond between hydrogen and oxygen atoms with regards to the electrons involved, the role of polarity, and the strength of the bond.

4. The pH of the human stomach is about 2.0, while the pH of the small intestine is about 10.0. What are the hydrogen ion (H+) concentrations inside these two organs?

5. The side chain of the amino acid glycine is simply a hydrogen atom (—H). Are there two optical isomers of glycine? Explain.

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Essentials of Human Physiology

Essentials of Human Physiology

This ebook provides an introductory explanation of the workings of the human body, with an effort to draw connections between the body systems and explain their interdependencies. A framework for the book is homeostasis and how the body maintains balance within each system. This is intended as a first introduction to physiology for a college-level course.

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