Early in animal evolution, the protostomate lineage split into two branches—the lophotrochozoans and the ecdysozoans—as we saw in the previous chapter. The distinguishing feature of the ecdyso-zoans is an exoskeleton, a nonliving covering that provides an animal with both protection and support. Once formed, however, an exoskeleton cannot grow. How, then, can ecdysozoans increase in size? Their solution is to shed, or molt, the exoskeleton and replace it with a new, larger one.
Before the animal molts, a new exoskeleton is already forming underneath the old one. When the old exoskeleton is shed, the new one expands and hardens. But until it has hardened, the animal is very vulnerable to its enemies both because its outer surface is easy to penetrate and because it can move only slowly.
The exoskeleton presented new challenges in other areas besides growth. Ecdysozoans cannot use cilia for locomotion, and most exdysozoans have hard exoskeletons that impede the passage of oxygen into the animal. To cope with these challenges, ecdysozoans evolved new mechanisms of locomotion and respiration.
Despite these constraints, the ecdysozoans—the molting animals—have more species than all other animal lineages combined. An increasingly rich array of molecular and genetic evidence, including a set of homeobox genes shared by all ecdysozoans, suggests that molting may have evolved only once during animal evolution.
In this chapter, we will review the diversity of the ecdysozoans. We will look at the characteristics of animals in the various ecdyso-zoan phyla and see how having an exoskeleton has influenced their evolution. The phylogeny we will follow is presented in Figure 33.1. In the first part of the chapter, we will look at several small phyla of wormlike ecdysozoans. Then we will detail the characteristics of the arthropods, an incredibly species-rich group of ecdysozoan phyla with hardened exoskeletons. We will close the chapter with an overview of evolutionary themes found in the evolution of the protostomate phyla, including both the lophotrochozoan and ecdyso-zoan lineages.
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This ebook provides an introductory explanation of the workings of the human body, with an effort to draw connections between the body systems and explain their interdependencies. A framework for the book is homeostasis and how the body maintains balance within each system. This is intended as a first introduction to physiology for a college-level course.