Transsphenoidal surgery is unquestionably painful. The majority of patients find the initial postoperative pain and blocked nose distressing. As a consequence, it is routine to give the patients morphine for pain. It will be interesting to see if endoscopic surgery will reduce this need, because our initial observations suggest that this is a much less painful procedure. Patients who have undergone a craniotomy are also given morphine for pain. Codeine, when given as an alternative, is idiosyncratic in effectiveness and pain control more haphazard.
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