Physiological Side Effects of Cellular Implants

Besides possible recognisable side effects on the psyche, the newly structured organisation of the brain by neurotransplantation may also result in unwanted physiological effects. Neurotransplantation in the intact brain of rodents has been shown to alter physiology. Three examples from the literature on transplantation in animals illustrate this i) the increase in cognitive capacities of aged rats following implantation of fetal septal brain grafts in the hippocampus (Gage et al. 1984), ii)...

Electrical Brain Stimulation for Psychiatric Disorders

Bilateral Anterior Capsulotomy

Based upon the fact that both the production of a focal brain lesion and the administration of high frequency electrical current to the same target e.g. Vim induce similar beneficial effects in Parkinson's sufferers, and given that lesions in certain brain sites seem to benefit some psychiatric patients, collaborating groups in Belgium and Sweden have hypothesised that electrical stimulation would also lead to improvements in the symptoms of psychiatric patients resistant to all other therapies...

Comments on the Published Guidelines on Electrical Brain Stimulation for Psychiatric Disorders

What follows is the summary of an interview, dating from June 2005, by Mrs. Allison Abbott Nature with 2 of the OCD patients operated on in Leuven, who received DBS Abbott 2005 . The patients did not hear each other's answers, but the answers were in essence the same. Question 1 How severe was your disease before the operation Answer I would surely have committed suicide if the surgery hadn't taken place. Question 2 Do you think the surgery has changed anything Answer After surgery there was a...

Visual Implants

Although the first attempts to restore vision in blind patients date back to the same year as those for auditory implantation, clinical application of this technology is lagging somewhat behind. This may be partially due to the considerably higher complexity of the visual compared to the auditory system. While the auditory nerve of a young, healthy, normally-hearing individual contains approximately 30,000 nerve fibres originating from the same number of receptor cells, the visual pathway...

Current Limitations Possible Solutions and Enhancement Technologies

Linking the human nervous system and brain directly to a computer opens up innumerable possibilities, not only in the future world of medicine, but also as a potential way of technically evolving all humans. This, however, presents something of an ethical problem. Nevertheless, the only way to actually find out what is realistically possible and what is not is to carry out practical experimentation using implant technology and to witness the results. Implants have a general disadvantage over...

Focal High Frequency Electrical Brain Stimulation

Progressive Spastic Ataxia

During the past decades focal high frequency electrical stimulation of the human brain has been used in order to treat the symptoms of several neurological disorders, including Parkinson's disease, essential tremor, dystonia, epilepsy and Tourette's syndrome. In the human brain neuronal circuitries have been detected which are responsible for motor control, others enable reception of information from the different sense organs vision, hearing, sensation, taste, smell , still others are...