Penis Enlargement Guide
Helene Deutsch, born in 1884, published her two-volume work, Psychology of Women in 1944 and 1945. She was truly a dutiful daughter (Chesler, 1972) of Freud, having spent a year in analysis with him and working entirely within a Freudian theoretical framework. Gallahan (Chapter 3, this volume) describes the key points of Deutsch's work, which expanded on classical Freudian concepts. Penis envy took a secondary role to the concept of envy itself, which is experienced by both boys and girls over anything that someone else has that they do not, particularly if that something takes parental attention away from them. In addition, Deutsch argued that the girl's bond with her mother is never completely broken, and the mother remains a more central figure in the girl's development than the father. Clara Thompson, born in 1893 in Rhode Island, was strongly influenced by Horney. Thompson criticized Freud for viewing female development through a masculine lens and from a masculine perspective....
Puberty is the maturational process of the reproductive endocrine system that results in final adult stature and adult body proportions, as well as final development of the genital organs and the capacity to reproduce. In this maturation of the hypothala-mic-pituitary-gonadal axis, the levels of gonadotropins increase and the production of sex steroids rise, leading to gonadal development and the development of secondary sexual characteristics. In boys, the first physical signs of puberty are an increase in testis volume and penis size, at a mean age of approx 11.5 yr in most Western countries. Testis volume increases from prepubertal values of 1-2 mL to 3-8 mL even before pubic hair appears, and reaches 20-30 mL in adulthood (1). Development of mature spermatogenesis is called spermarche (as opposed to menarche), at which time mature spermatozoa are found in the urine. This hallmark of gonadal maturation occurs at mean age of 13.5 years, when the mean testis volume reaches 11.5 mL...
Parasympathetic preganglionic input to the human penis originates in the sacral (S2-S4) spinal cord (30). In most men, S3 is the main source of erectogenic fibers, with a smaller supply provided by either S2 or S4. These preganglionic neurons are situated in the intermediolateral cell column and send dendritic projections to laminae V, VII, IX, and X of the spinal cord. These distributions for axonal processes imply that sacral preganglionic neurons receive afferent information from both visceral and somatic structures.
Horney (1939) believed that males held beliefs about females that were similar to those posited by Freud regarding female identity development males initially believed that all people have penises and that girls, upon realization that they lack a penis, must experience a sense of loss. Horney believed that males were much more interested in development that centered on genitalia than were females, though she did believe that females experienced penis envy. This envy, however, was note a result of a girl's desire to possess the mother or to Horney also believed that a female's desire for a child was not the necessary outcome of penis envy, but a primary, instinctual, biological need. She also held that males attribute penis envy to women because of a fear of women that originated in their early fear of the mother and their own desire to reproduce as women do Horney also suggested that men experience womb envy derived from their lack o ability to bear offspring.
Thompson believed that the greater the social value placed on procreative activity for females in a given society, the more male-dominant and oppressive the society and the less likely females were to hold other socially valued positions. Thus, according to Thompson, a female's feminine identity lay not in penis envy, but in her desire to be a valued member of her society. She also noted that as females aspired to more socially valued positions, the emphasis a society placed on procreative activities increased, as did the oppression of females, publicly through discrimination and privately through demands for sexual passivity.
Lacking penises, girls appear castrated to him and the little boy fears a similar fate. Girls, on the other hand, realising that they have been born unequipped with penises experience the female counterpart to castration anxiety, namely, penis envy. They are said to harbour angry feelings towards the mother for having created them without a penis. While the boy's castration anxiety is what causes him to repress his longing for his mother, the girl's penis envy is what impels her towards her father, desiring a child by the father-the desire for a child being merely a substitute for her former desire for a penis.
Three spongy cylinders comprise the human penis the paired corpora cavernosa runs dorsolaterally and the corpus spongiosum runs ventrally. Incomplete septa between the corpora cavernosa allow for neurovascular communication, allowing the two bodies to function physiologically and pharmacologically as a single unit. The three corporal bodies are enveloped by a dense fascial structure known as the tunica albuginea. The deep fascia (Buck's fascia) ofthe penis surrounds the outside ofthe tunica albuginea and gives off a thin fibrous septum that separates the corpora cavernosa from the corpus spongiosum. Buck's fascia is attached to the perineal membrane proximally distally, it is tightly attached to the base of glans penis at the coronal sulcus, where it fuses with the end of the corpora. The fascia has a dense structure and is composed of fibers that run longitudinally. It is firmly attached to underlying tunica albuginea and surrounds the deep dorsal vein and the paired dorsal arteries...
Constitutively activating mutations of the LH-R gene give rise to FMPP. Inactivating LH-R mutation results in an array of male phenotypes ranging from micropenis and hypospadias to complete sex reversal (XY, pseudohermaphroditism), depending on the completeness of inactivation of the receptor. Inactivating FSHR mutations in men cause a decrease of testicular size and suppressed quality and quantity of spermatogen-esis but not azoospermia. Some affected men may be fertile. FSH inactivation is unlikely to affect pubertal maturation. No unequivocally activating mutations of the FSHR have yet been described in either sex. Studies on candidate syndromes (e.g., precocious puberty and macro-orchia) have yielded negative results.
In the human male, LH-R function is essential at all ages for testicular androgen production. Therefore, these mutations influence male sexual differentiation, development, and mature functions from the fetal period through adulthood. The inactivating LH-R mutations vary in completeness, and the phenotype of affected males depends on the extent of receptor inactivation (9,59,60). In the mildest forms, the phenotype is hypospadias and or micropenis, and in the completely inactivating form, the male phe-notype is complete sex reversal, i.e., pseudohermaphroditism (9). The latter group presents with total lack of male type sexual differentiation in utero or postnatal
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