Spread of the Black Death in Europe 1347 1350

Black Death Europe 1347

Historical Aside on the Black Death and Plague in the 20th Century The fascination with the Black Death, the catastrophic plague pandemic that swept through Europe in the mid-14th century, has not abated with the passage of time. Albert Camus' The Plague, published in 1947, is one example, in a modern context. In the many accounts of the Black Death over the centuries, whether factual or romanticised, a vision has been conjured up of horrific carnage, wild debauchery, unbelievable acts of...

Pattern Formation Mechanism for Butterfly Wing Patterns

Wing Venation Lymantria Dispar

The variety of different patterns, as well as their spectacular colouring, on butterfly and moth wings is astonishing. Figures 3.12 a and b show but two examples see also Figure 3.22 below. There are close to a million different types of butterflies and moths.4 The study of butterfly wing colours and patterns has a long history, often carried out by gifted amateur scientists, particularly in the 19th century. In the 20th century there was a burgeoning of scientific activity. A review of the...

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Figure 11.11. continued See the comment in parentheses in Figure 11.10. Parameter estimates are obtained from data on mid to high grade astrocytomas glioblastoma multiforme . High grade astrocytomas account for 50 of all astrocytomas, which in turn make up 50 of all primary brain tumours Alvord and Shaw 1991 . We use the Alvord and Shaw 1991 estimate of one week to 12 months as the doubling times for gliomas. So, for cell proliferation of a high grade astrocytoma, we take a growth rate of p...