Acute and Chronic Complications

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The major acute complications of diabetes occuring in children are hypoglycemia, hyperglycemia, and diabetic ketoacidosis. Hypoglycemia is caused by too little food, delayed or missed meals and snacks, increased exercise, excessive insulin, or alcohol intake without food. Hyperglycemia is caused by increased food intake, inadequate insulin dose, or a decrease in usual exercise. Diabetic ketoacidosis results from an absolute lack of insulin and the build-up of ketoacids in the blood.

The chronic complications of diabetes are microvascular disease (neuropathy, nephropathy, retinopathy), macro-vascular disease (ischemic heart disease, cerebrovascular disease, peripheral vascular disease), and poor growth and development. Many of the chronic complications can be prevented or delayed with optimal blood glucose control, management of dyslipidemia and hypertension, proper weight management, and smoking cessation.

Table 23-1 provides approximations of the onset, peak, and duration of the current insulin preparations available. The actual action time of insulin will vary between patients and is affected by a number of factors, including the si/e of the dose, site and depth of injection, and exercise.

Table 23-1. Common Insulin Preparations

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Diabetes 2

Diabetes 2

Diabetes is a disease that affects the way your body uses food. Normally, your body converts sugars, starches and other foods into a form of sugar called glucose. Your body uses glucose for fuel. The cells receive the glucose through the bloodstream. They then use insulin a hormone made by the pancreas to absorb the glucose, convert it into energy, and either use it or store it for later use. Learn more...

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