Orchid Growing Training Course
Habitat damage, the construction of facilities, and the opening of remote areas for human population have made many plants vulnerable to gathering and collecting. Some plants have been overharvested by gardeners, botanists, and horticulturists. One species of lady's slipper orchid (Cy-pripedium calceolus) is rare over much of its natural range except in parts of Scandinavia and the Alps because of collecting. Additionally, many mountain flowers or bulbs such as saxifrages, bellflowers, snowdrops, and cyclamen are endangered. In France and Italy, florulent saxifrage (Saxifraga florulenta), an alpine plant, has been overcollected by horticulturists and poachers. Worldwide, orchids are overcollected for horticulture. Several species have been collected to extinction, are extremely rare, or have been lost because of habitat destruction. Examples include the extremely rare blue vanda (Vanda caerulea) Paphiopedilum druryi, believed extinct in its native habitat Dendrobium pauciflorum,...
The densest layer of plant life is the canopy. High above the rain forest floor, the branches of mature trees form a dense intertwined zone of vegetation extending up as much as 150 feet above the ground. Numerous plants sprout in the crotches of trees, where debris may collect. Tree limbs are festooned with vines and mosses, and bromeliads and orchids grow on the rough bark of tree trunks. Even other trees may start their life cycles a hundred feet above the ground The strangler figs of Borneo are a relatively shade-intolerant species. A fig seed that lands and sprouts on the ground will probably not survive due to low light levels on the forest floor. Strangler figs have adapted so that their seedlings do best high in the canopy. The figs begin life in the crotches of other trees. The roots of a young fig will gradually creep down the trunk of the tree on which it sprouted. Over time, the strangler fig's roots will completely encircle the host tree, as well as penetrating the forest...
CAM Photosynthesis Crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) photosynthesis is found in plants of about 30 families, including cacti, stonecrops, orchids, bromeliads, and other succulents that are often stressed by limited availability of water. A few succulents do not have CAM photosynthesis, however, and several nonsucculent plants do. Many CAM plants are facultative C3 plants that can switch to C3 photosynthesis during the day after a good rain or when night temperatures are high. Plants with CAM photosynthesis typically do not have a well-defined palisade mesophyll in the leaves, and, in contrast to the chloroplasts of the bundle sheath cells of C4 plants, those of CAM photosynthesis plants resemble the mesophyll cell chloroplasts of C3 plants.
Coenzyme A esters are not involved, and though a similar hydration of the double bond occurs, chain shortening features a reverse aldol reaction, generating the appropriate aromatic aldehyde. The corresponding acid is then formed via an NAD+-dependent oxidation step. Thus, aromatic aldehydes such as vanillin, the main flavour compound in vanilla (pods of the orchid Vanilla planiflora Orchidaceae) would be formed from the correspondingly substituted cinnamic acid without proceeding through intermediate benzoic acids or esters. Whilst the substitution pattern in these C6C1 derivatives is generally built up at the C6C3 cinnamic acid stage, prior to chain shortening, there exists the possibility of further hydroxylations and or methylations occurring at the C6C1 level, and this is known in certain examples. Salicylic acid (Figure 4.27) is synthesized in microorganisms directly from isochorismic acid (see page 124), but can arise in plants by two other mechanisms. It can be produced by...
Figure 10.13 Crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) photosynthesis found in orchids, pineapples, and many desert plants. CAM is similar to C4 photosynthesis, but the plants have their stomata closed during daylight heat, thus conserving water. The organic acids accumulate at night and break down during the day, releasing carbon dioxide, which then enters the Calvin cycle and C3 metabolism while the stomata are closed. Figure 10.13 Crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) photosynthesis found in orchids, pineapples, and many desert plants. CAM is similar to C4 photosynthesis, but the plants have their stomata closed during daylight heat, thus conserving water. The organic acids accumulate at night and break down during the day, releasing carbon dioxide, which then enters the Calvin cycle and C3 metabolism while the stomata are closed.
Why are so many species of orchids rare, while dandelions, shepherd's purse, and other weeds occur all over the world Why are some plants confined to single continents, mountain ranges, or small niches occupying less than a hectare (2.47 acres) of land The answers to these questions involve many different factors, including climate, soil, the adaptability of the plant, and its means of seed dispersal. How fruits and seeds are transported from one place to another is the subject of the following sections. Other factors are discussed in Chapters 13 and 25. Seeds themselves may be so tiny and light that they can be blown great distances by the wind. Orchids and heaths, for example, produce seeds with no endosperm that are as
The seed containing the embryo plant also contains endosperm, a food storage tissue. The whole is enclosed in one or two seed coats. Seeds range in size from dustlike, such as the seeds of orchids, to a length of one foot or more and a weight of as much as 40 pounds, such as the coconut.
Flowers show a range of specialization to pollinators (Johnson and Steiner, 2000) (Figure 3.2). Some flowers like the Madagascan orchid Angraecum sesquipedale, which has a 30 cm long tubular nectary, is pollinated by a moth Xanthopan morgani praedicta with a correspondingly long proboscis. Another Madagascan orchid Angraecum 'longicalar' has been discovered, with an even longer nectar spur, 36-41 cm long, which presumably has a matching pollinator (Schatz, 1992).
The outermost layer of cells of all young plant organs is called the epidermis. Since it is in direct contact with the environment, it is subject to modification by the environment and often includes several different kinds of cells. The epidermis is usually one cell thick, but a few plants produce aerial roots called velamen roots (e.g., orchids) in which the epidermis may be several cells thick, with the outer cells functioning something like a sponge. Such a multiple-layered epidermis also occurs in the leaves of some tropical figs and members of the Pepper Family (Piperaceae), where it protects a plant from desiccation.
Most flowering plants belong to one of two major lineages. Monocots are generally narrow-leaved flowering plants such as grasses, lilies, orchids, and palms. Eudicots are broad-leaved flowering plants such as soybeans, roses, sunflowers, and maples. These two lineages account for 97 per
It is fairly common that one or both testes will fail to descend into the scrotum by the time of birth. This condition is termed cryptorchidism, literally hidden (crypt o) testis (orchid o). The condition usually corrects itself within the first year of life. If not, it must be corrected surgically to avoid sterility and an increased risk of cancer.
Capsule Capsules are the most common of the dry fruits that split (Fig. 8.15). They consist of at least two carpels and split in a variety of ways. Some split along the partitions between the carpels, while others split through the cavities (locules) in the carpels. Still others form a cap toward one end that pops off and releases the seeds, or they form a row of pores through which the seeds are shaken out as the capsule rattles in the wind. Examples include irises, orchids, lilies, poppies, violets, and snapdragons.
The evolution of flowering plants and their resulting use of animals in pollination and seed dispersal probably began in dense, tropical rain forests, where pollination by the wind would be cumbersome. Because insects are the most abundant form of animal life in rain forests, strategies based upon insect transport of pollen probably originated there. Because structural specialization increases the possibility that a flower's pollen will be transferred to a plant of the same species, many plants have evolved a vast array of scents, colors, and nutritional products to attract many insects, some birds, and a few mammals. Not only does pollen include the plant's sperm cells, but it is also rich in food for these animals. Another source of animal nutrition is a substance called nectar, a sugar-rich fluid often produced in specialized structures called nectaries within the flower itself or on adjacent stems and leaves. Assorted waxes and oils are also produced by plants to ensure...
A spike has sessile flowers borne on a single rachis. Examples are ladies' tresses (a type of orchid) and plantain. A spikelet is a small spike. The flowers are inconspicuous and often hidden by a series of modified bracts. This is the basic inflorescence unit of grasses and sedges.
A few flowering plants are parasitic. Dodders, for example, occasionally cause serious crop losses as they twine about their hosts and, by means of haustoria (shown in Fig. 5.15B), intercept food and water in the host xylem and phloem. Broomrapes also parasitize a variety of plants, as do mistletoes. Mistletoes produce some chlorophyll and depend only partially on their hosts for food. Still others, such as the beautiful snowplant (Fig. 23.2) and some of the orchids, are saprophytes (i.e., their nutrition comes mostly from the absorption in solution of dead organic matter). The vast majority of flowering plants, however, produce their food independently through photosynthesis.
Slightly less than three-fourths of all flowering plant species are dicots. Dicots include many annual plants and virtually all flowering trees and shrubs. Monocots, which are primarily herbaceous, are believed to have developed from primitive dicots. They include species that produce bulbs (e.g., lilies), grasses and related plants, orchids, irises, and palms. Palms, like other monocots, do not have a vascular cambium but become large through a primary thickening process of cells that occurs just below the apical meristem.
The Legume Family, originally referred to as the Leguminosae, is the third largest of the approximately 300 families of flowering plants, with only the Sunflower and Orchid Families having more species. The 13,000 family members of the Fabaceae are cosmopolitan in distribution and include many important plants. The flowers range in symmetry from radial (regular) to bilateral (irregular). The irregular flowers have a boat-shaped keel composed of two fused petals that enclose the pistil, two wing petals, and a larger banner petal (Fig. 24.11). The stamens in such flowers are generally fused in the form of a tube around the ovary. The legume fruit is the common feature shared by all members of the family (see Fig. 8.16).
The word species means, literally, kinds. But what do we mean by kinds Someone who is knowledgeable about a group of organisms, such as orchids or lizards, usually can distinguish the different species found in a particular area simply by examining their visible features. Standard field guides to birds, mammals, insects, and flowers are possible only because most species are cohesive units that change little in appearance over large geographic distances. We can easily recognize male red-winged blackbirds from New York
The stems of butcher's broom plants are flattened and appear leaflike. Such flattened stems are called cladophylls (or cladodes orphylloclades) (Fig. 6.14). There is a node bearing very small, scalelike leaves with axillary buds in the center of each butcher's broom cladophyll. The feathery appearance of asparagus is due to numerous small cladophylls. Cladophylls also occur in greenbriers, certain orchids, prickly pear cacti (Fig. 6.15), and several other lesser-known plants.
Velamen roots of orchids, prop roots of corn and banyan trees (Fig. 5.11), adventitious roots of ivies, and photosyn-thetic roots of certain orchids are among various kinds of aerial roots produced by plants. It was formerly assumed that the epidermis of velamen roots, which is several cells thick, aided in the absorption of rain water. It appears, however, it may function more in preventing loss of moisture from the root. Corn prop roots, produced toward the base of Figure 5.11 The aerial (velamen) roots of orchids have a thick epidermis that reduces water loss from internal tissues. Figure 5.11 The aerial (velamen) roots of orchids have a thick epidermis that reduces water loss from internal tissues. The vanilla orchid, from which we obtain vanilla flavoring, produces chlorophyll in its aerial roots and, through photosynthesis, can manufacture food with them. The adventitious roots of English ivy, Boston ivy, and Virginia creeper appear along the stem and aid the plants in climbing.
Depending on which authorities are followed, the number of known orchid species (all in the family Orchidaceae) may exceed 30,000. Popularly cultivated orchids include species of Cattleya, Cymbidium, Dendrobium, Odontoglossum, Oncidium, Paphiopedilum, Phalaenopsis, Vanda, and both interspecific and intergeneric hybrids. 19. Depending on which authorities are followed, the number of known orchid species (all in the family Orchidaceae) may exceed 30,000. Popularly cultivated orchids include species of Cattleya, Cymbidium, Dendrobium, Odontoglossum, Oncidium, Paphiopedilum, Phalaenopsis, Vanda, and both interspecific and intergeneric hybrids.
Fungi assist in the germination of seeds. The mycelia of various basidiomycetes and ascomycetes are associated with the roots of flowering plants in symbiotic relationships. The name for such an association is mycorrhiza (myco meaning fungus, rhiza meaning root ). The fungi involved in such relationships are present in the soil. The fungal hyphae connect to the younger portions of roots and form a sheath of compact mycelium around the roots. Pines, heaths, and orchids lack root hairs and can grow successfully only when they associate in this way with fungal hyphae that furnish the absorbing mechanism. When pines are planted in an area where they have not grown before, the forester mixes the proper fungi with the soil to encourage successful growth. The mycorrhiza of orchids is endotrophic, the mycelium being widely distributed through the cortex or, if the orchid is a rootless form, penetrating the chlorophyll-free tissues of absorbing organs. The minute seeds of orchids do not...
Certain plants that live in nitrogen-poor habitats, such as cranberry bushes and orchids, invariably have mycorrhizae. Orchid seeds will not germinate in nature unless they are already infected by the fungus that will form their mycorrhizae. Plants that lack chlorophyll always have mycor-rhizae, which they often share with the
Is constructed so that it is highly unlikely that a pollinium of one species will be inserted within the stigma of another species. As a result, many species of related orchids can be sympatric without genes being exchanged. Four closely related sympatric species of Peruvian Catasetum orchids, which can be artificially hybridized very easily, have no known natural hybrids, despite their being pollinated by a single species of bee. Microscopic examination of the pollinators has shown that the pollinium of one species is attached to the insect's head, that of another is attached to the insect's back, that of a third to the abdomen, and that of the fourth only to the left front leg. Even after visits to hundreds of flowers, none of the pollinia are misplaced (Fig. 15.9). Figure 15.8 A pair of pollinia (sacs of pollen) produced by members of the orchid family (Orchidaceae). The pollinia become attached to the bodies of visiting insects, which transport them to other orchid flowers. Figure...
The most important economic use of Pterophyta is as ornamental garden plants and houseplants. Fern fronds are used in cut-flower arrangments as ornamental greenery. Botanical collectors have identified rare ferns, for which they pay high prices there is even an underground economy of smuggling ferns illegally from protected areas. Masses of fern roots are used to cultivate such epiphytic greenhouse plants as orchids. In the Middle Ages, some people believed that at midnight on June 24, St. John's Day, ferns would produce blossoms which contained magical seeds.
New Guinea habitats include cold tundra, tropical rain forests, grassy savannas, coastal zones, montane rain forests, cloud forests, and bogs. There are at least twenty thousand species of flowering plants, including more than twenty-five hundred species of orchids, and hundreds of birds and animals. Many New Guinea species are unusual.
Alternately arranged leaves produce one leaf per node. These leaves may be on alternate sides of the stem (2-ranked or distichous), on one side of the stem (1-ranked or secund), or in a spiral around the stem. If 2-ranked leaves overlap, as in some oncid-ium orchids and iris species, then they are referred to as equitant.
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