The Secret to Overcoming Anxiety, Panic And Worry

Anxiety Secrets

Here is what you'll learn from Anxiety The Cool Way: The root cause of anxiety & depression. The “Cool Anxiety Attitude. How to stop panic attacks. What to do when your thoughts feel out of control. How to radically trust yourself in the face of panic and difficult problems. How to build genuine self-esteem! How to manage and conquer social anxiety. How you can overcome feelings of depersonalization or derealization (a feeling of being detached) How to take a short-cut around irrational and unwanted thoughts to get to the root cause. How to find freedom from OCD How to have fun overcoming anxiety. How to utilize worry and depression to your advantage. Stress management for anxiety sufferers. How to deal with the feeling of hopelessness. How to speak in front of large groups of people and remain comfortable!

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Glial Cells

Neurons account for only about 10 percent of the cells in the central nervous system. The remainder are glial cells also called neuroglia . The neurons branch more extensively than glia do, however, and therefore neurons occupy about 50 percent of the volume of the brain and spinal cord. Glial cells physically and metabolically support neurons and, as noted earlier, some glia, the oligo-dendroglia, form the myelin covering of CNS axons. A second type of glial cell, the astroglia, helps Vander...

The Autonomic Nervous System

Sacral Reflex Arc

The autonomic nervous system ANS is the division of the nervous system that controls the involuntary actions of muscles and glands Fig. 17-6 . The ANS itself has two divisions the sympathetic nervous system and the parasympathetic nervous system. The sympathetic nervous system motivates our response to stress, the so-called fight-or-flight response. It increases heart rate and respiration rate, stimulates the adrenal gland, and delivers more blood to skeletal muscles. The parasympathetic system...

Feature Extraction by Optic Lobe Units of Crustaceans

Eyestalk Hermit Crab

The visual information processing characteristics of crustacean CEs has been shown to be similar in many ways to that performed by nonflying insects. Crustacean CEs have, in general, seven retinula cells per ommatidium Waterman, 1961 . Crustaceans e.g., crabs, lobsters, crayfish are unique in that their CEs are at the ends of stalks that can be moved by the animal to track moving objects over a limited range, or be moved to a protected position if the animal is threatened. Insect CEs are, of...

The Enteric Division of the ANS Functions as a Minibrain in the

The ENS is a minibrain located close to the effector systems it controls. Effector systems of the digestive tract are the musculature, secretory glands, and blood vessels. Rather than crowding the vast numbers of neurons required for controlling digestive functions into the cranium as part of the cephalic brain and relying on signal transmission over long and unreliable pathways, the integrative microcircuits are located at the site of the effectors. The circuits at the effector sites have...

Complex Structure

The vertebrate nervous system is the most complex structure known to humankind. The human nervous system, for example, has more than a hundred billion cellular elements, and perhaps a hundred trillion points of information exchange between these elements. It is impossible to understand the details of such a structure in the same way that one can understand the structure of a radio however, the general organizational plan can be discovered through the application of modern neuroanatomical...

Figure 1011

Pathways by which the nervous system influences hormone secretion. a Certain neurons in the hypothalamus, some of which terminate in the posterior pituitary, secrete hormones. The secretion of hypothalamic hormones from the posterior pituitary and the effects of other hypothalamic hormones on the anterior pituitary are described later in this chapter. b The autonomic nervous system controls hormone secretion by the adrenal medulla and many other endocrine glands. Vander et al. Human Physiology...

Tests for nerve root compression

Nerve Root Anatomy

Prolapse of intervertebral discs occurs most frequently at the L4 5 or L5 SI level, producing compression of the L5 and SI nerve roots respectively. Tension can be applied to these nerve roots by flexing the hip with the knee straight -the so-called straight leg raising test. Normally, about 90 degrees of hip flexion should be possible but this varies considerably 70-120 degrees . When the root is stretched over a prolapsed disc, straight leg raising will be restricted and pain will usually be...

Structure Of The Nervous System

We shall now survey the anatomy and broad functions of the major structures of the nervous system future chapters will describe these functions in more detail. First, we must deal with some potentially confusing terminology. Recall that a long extension from a single neuron is called an axon or a nerve fiber and that the term nerve refers to a group of many nerve fibers that are traveling together to the same general location in the peripheral nervous system. There are no nerves in the central...

Preparation of Mannosylated Clodronate Liposomes for CNS Research

For some studies in the CNS, e.g., for research on the role of macrophages in experimental allergic encephalomyelitis, a rodent model for multiple sclerosis, clodronate liposomes should be mannosylated 28,29 . 1.85mg mL -aminophenyl a-d-mannopyranoside syn. manno-side solution in methanol 100 mg mL phosphatidylcholine egg lectin solution in chloroform, filtered through 0.2-mm pore filter 10 mg mL cholesterol solution in chloroform, filtered through 0.2-mm pore filter 0.7 M clodronate solution...

Myelination of the Nervous System

Myelination of each of the multiple connecting fiber systems of the CNS takes place at a different time in early development. Some fiber systems start to myeli-nate halfway through gestation or later and rapidly attain their maximal degree of myelination, whereas other systems attain their maximal degree of myeli-nation only slowly. It is, therefore, not correct to refer to myelination as a singular process. There is a marked, temporal diversity in topographic patterns of myelination throughout...

The General Reflex

Reflex Arc Components

The pathway followed by the stimulus impulse from beginning to end is the reflex arc. The general reflex arc Figure 12-10 of the human nervous system has a minimum of five components Figure 12-10. The general reflex arc. Figure 12-10. The general reflex arc. a. The stimulus is received by a receptor organ specific to that stimulus. b. From the receptor organ, the stimulus is carried to the CNS by way of an afferent sensory neuron within the appropriate peripheral nerve. The cell body of this...

Thyroid Hormones Are Essential for Development of the Central Nervous System

The human brain undergoes its most active phase of growth during the last 6 months of fetal life and the first 6 months of postnatal life. During the second trimester of pregnancy, the multiplication of neuroblasts in the fetal brain reaches a peak and then declines. As pregnancy progresses and the rate of neuroblast division drops, neuroblasts differentiate into neurons and begin the process of synapse formation that extends into postnatal life. Thyroid hormones first appear in the fetal blood...

Glial cells are also important components of nervous systems

Schwann Cell

Neurons are not the only type of cell in the nervous system. In fact, there are more glial cells than neurons in the human brain. Like neurons, glial cells come in several forms and have a diversity of functions. Some glial cells physically support and orient the neurons and help them make the right contacts during embryonic development. Other glial cells insulate axons. In the peripheral nervous system, Schwann cells wrap around the axons of neurons, covering them with concentric layers of...

Autonomic reflexes coordinate functions in different regions of the gut

Gut Reflexes

Everyone has experienced salivation stimulated by the sight or smell of food. That response is an autonomic reflex, as is the act of swallowing following tactile stimulation at the back of the mouth. Many such autonomic reflexes coordinate activity in different regions of the digestive tract. Stretching the stomach with food, for example, stimulates increased activity in the colon, which can lead to the expulsion of feces. The digestive tract is unusual in that it has an intrinsic its own...

The Perception of Sensory Information Involves Encoding and Decoding

After the acquisition of sensory stimuli, the process of perception involves the subsequent encoding and transmission of the sensory signal to the central nervous system. Further processing or decoding yields biologically useful information. Encoding and Transmission of Sensory Information. Environmental stimuli that have been partially processed by a sensory receptor must be conveyed to the CNS in such a way that the complete range of the intensity of the stimulus is preserved. Compression....

Enteric Nervous System

The submucosal Meissner's and myenteric Auerbach's plexuses within the wall of the intestine contain 100 million neurons, about as many as are in the spinal cord These include preganglionic parasympathetic axons, the ganglion cell bodies of postganglionic parasympathetic neurons, postganglionic sympathetic axons, and afferent sensory neurons. These plexuses also contain interneu-rons, as does the CNS. Also like the CNS, the enteric nervous system or enteric brain contains more glial cells than...

Word Parts Pertaining to the Nervous System

TABLE 17-1 Roots for the Nervous System and the Spinal Cord nervous system, nervous tissue, nerve harmful or poisonous to a nerve or nervous tissue ganglion ectomy gang-gle-o-NEK-tO-me hernia of the meninges through the skull or spinal column m yelodysplasia mi -e-lO-dis-PLA-se-a abnormal development of the spinal cord

Ligand Operated Channels

Nicotinic Receptor

This is the most direct mechanism by which chemically regulated gates can be opened. In this case, the ion channel runs through the receptor itself. The ion channel is opened by the binding of the receptor to the neurotransmitter ligand. Such is the case when ACh binds to its nicotinic ACh receptor. This receptor consists of five polypeptide subunits that enclose the ion channel. Two of these subunits contain ACh-binding sites, and the channel opens when both sites bind to ACh fig. 7.23 . The...

Touch Pressure

Meissner Corpuscle

Stimulation of the variety of mechanoreceptors in the skin see Figure 9-17 leads to a wide range of touch-pressure experiences hair bending, deep pressure, vibrations, and superficial touch, for example. These mechanoreceptors are highly specialized nerve endings encapsulated in elaborate cellular structures. The details of the mechanoreceptors vary, but generally the nerve endings are linked to collagen-fiber networks within the capsule. These networks transmit the Vander et al. Human I II....

Intercellular Communication

Synapse Diagram

For multicellular organisms to form and operate, cellular behavior must be vastly more complex than what is seen on the single-cell level. Cells must not only regulate their own growth and behavior, they must also communicate and interact with their neighbors to ensure the correct behavior of the entire organism. Intercellular communication occurs in a variety of ways, ranging from hormonal communication on the level of the entire body to localized interactions between individual cells. Our...

Enteric Nervous System the Brain of the

Our immune system is closely related to the axis gut-brain through the enteric nervous system ENS . Nerves from both the brain and the spinal cord of our colitic or potentially colitic patients interact with structures and substances situated and produced in the bowel wall in both health and in disease. What we feel and what we think, what we hope and what we fear, is communicated to the above-mentioned enteric immune and nervous system and vice versa through the transport of cranial sensation....

Regulation of the Gastrointestinal Tract

The GI tract is innervated by the sympathetic and parasympa-thetic divisions of the autonomic nervous system. As discussed in chapter 9, parasympathetic nerves in general stimulate motility and secretions of the gastrointestinal tract. The vagus nerve is the source of parasympathetic activity in the esophagus, stomach, pancreas, gallbladder, small intestine, and upper portion of the large intestine. The lower portion of the large intestine receives parasympathetic innervation from spinal nerves...

78 Steps Health Cae Study 12-1 Answers Medical Terminology

Answers to Chapter Exercises EXERCISE 17-1 pertaining to a nerve or the nervous system pertaining to neuroglia, glial cells 11. ventricular ven-TRIK-u-lar 15. pertaining to the brain and spinal cord 16. inflammation of a ventricle 17. lack of sleep, inability to sleep 18. encephalopathy en-sef-a-LOP-a-the 19. supracerebellar su-pra-ser-e-BEL-ar 20. corticothalamic kor-ti-ko-tha-LAM-ik 21. ventriculogram ven-TRIK-u-lo-gram 22. extracerebral eks-tra-SER-e-bral noctiphobia nok-ti-FO-be-a also...

Functional Subsystems of the Nervous System

Gyri Function

We have just surveyed the development of the nervous system in terms of anatomically distinct structures. At any one time, these various structures are engaged in many simultaneous tasks a property known as parallel processing of information. Specific tasks are carried out by subsystems that may involve several different anatomical regions or structures of the nervous system. We will now examine several of these functional subsystems. The spinal cord receives and processes information from the...

Sequelae of inflammatory diseases of central nervous system

Note This category is to be used to indicate conditions whose primary classification is to G00-G08 i.e. excluding those marked with an asterisk as the cause of sequelae, themselves classifiable elsewhere. The sequelae include conditions specified as such or as late effects, or those present one year or more after onset of the causal condition. For use of this category reference should be made to the relevant morbidity and mortality coding rules and guidelines in Volume 2.

Control of Stroke Volume

Factors Influencing Heart Rate

The second variable that determines cardiac output is stroke volume, the volume of blood ejected by each ventricle during each contraction. As stated earlier, the ventricles do not completely empty themselves of blood during contraction. Therefore, a more forceful contraction can produce an increase in stroke volume by causing greater emptying. Changes in the force of contraction can be produced by a variety of factors, but three are dominant under most physiological and pathophysiological...

Central Nervous System Spinal Cord

Dorsal Root Ganglion Function

The spinal cord lies within the bony vertebral column Figure 8-36 . It is a slender cylinder of soft tissue about as big around as the little finger. The central butterfly-shaped area in cross section of gray matter Vander et al. Human Physiology The Mechanism of Body Function, Eighth Edition Long neural pathways and multineuronal multisynaptic pathways and their relationship to the reticular formation. Section of the spinal cord, ventral view. The arrows indicate the direction of transmission...

Capillary Pressure Is Reduced When the Sympathetic Nervous System Increases Arteriolar Resistance

When sympathetic nervous system stimulation causes a substantial increase in precapillary resistance and a proportionately smaller increase in postcapillary resistance, the capillary pressure can decrease up to 15 mm Hg and, thereby, greatly increase the absorption of tissue fluid. This process is important. As mentioned earlier, fluid taken from the interstitial space can compensate for vascular volume loss during sweating, vomiting, or diarrhea. As water is lost by any of these processes, the...

Forebrain

Pituitary Gland And Olfactory Bulbs

The larger component of the forebrain see Figure 8-38 , the cerebrum, consists of the right and left cerebral hemispheres as well as certain other structures on the underside of the brain. The central core of the fore-brain is formed by the diencephalon. The cerebral hemispheres Figure 8-40 consist of the cerebral cortex, an outer shell of gray matter covering myelinated fiber tracts, which form the white matter. This in turn overlies cell clusters, which are also gray matter and are...

Neurulation Initiating the Nervous System

Gastrulation produces an embryo with three germ layers that are positioned to influence one another through inductive interactions. During the next phase of development, called organogenesis, many organs and organ systems develop simultaneously and in coordination with one another. An early process of organogenesis that is directly related to gastrula-tion is neurulation, the initiation of the nervous system in vertebrates . We will examine this event in the amphibian embryo, but it occurs in a...

The Structure and Function of Circular and Longitudinal Muscles Differ

Structure Longitudinal Muscles

The circular muscle layer is thicker than the longitudinal layer and more powerful in exerting contractile forces on the contents of the lumen. The long axis of the muscle fibers of circular muscle is oriented in the circumferential direction. Consequently, contraction reduces the diameter of the lumen of an intestinal segment and increases its length. Because the long axis of the muscle fibers is oriented in the longitudinal direction, contraction of the longitudinal muscle coat shortens the...

Spemann Belly Piece

Spemann Belly Piece

Question Are cytoplasmic factors necessary for development segregated within the fertilized egg Using a baby's hair, the zygote is constricted along the plane of first Using a baby's hair, the zygote is constricted along the plane of first Only those halves with gray crescent develop normally. Only those halves with gray crescent develop normally. Conclusion Cytoplasmic factors in the gray crescent are crucial for normal development. 20.10 Spemann's Experiment Spemann's research revealed that...

Central Nervous System Brain

Body Systems And Functions

During development, the central nervous system forms from a long tube. As the anterior part of the tube, which becomes the brain, folds during its continuing formation, four different regions become apparent. These regions become the four subdivisions of the brain cerebrum, diencephalon, brainstem, and cerebellum Figure 8-38 . The cerebrum and diencephalon together constitute the forebrain. The brainstem consists of the midbrain, pons, and medulla oblongata. The brain also contains four...

The Primary Neurotransmitters of the ANS Are Acetylcholine and Norepinephrine

Paravertebral Nerve Block Anatomy

In the somatic nervous system, neurotransmitter is released from specialized nerve endings that make intimate contact with the target structure. The mammalian motor endplate, with one nerve terminal to one skeletal muscle fiber, illustrates this principle. This arrangement contrasts with the ANS, where postganglionic axons terminate in varicosities, swellings enriched in synaptic vesicles, which release the transmitter into the extracellular space surrounding the effector cells see Fig. 6.1 ....

Feedback Control of Hormone Secretion

The nature of the endocrine glands, the interaction of the nervous and endocrine systems, and the actions of hormones will be discussed in detail in later chapters. For now, it is sufficient to describe the regulation of hormone secretion very broadly, since it so superbly illustrates the principles of homeostasis and negative feedback regulation. Hormones are secreted in response to specific chemical stimuli. A rise in the plasma glucose concentration, for example, stimulates insulin secretion...

Related Websites

Human Physiology

Check out the Links Library at www.mhhe.com fox8 for links to sites containing resources related to the physiology of the kidneys. These links are monitored to ensure current URLs. describe the structure and function of the enteric nervous system. discuss the nature and actions of the different gastrointestinal hormones. describe the structure and function of the villi, microvilli, and crypts in the small intestine. describe the location and functions of the brush border enzymes of the...

Capillaries

Capillary Wall Micrograph

The arterial system branches extensively table 13.10 to deliver blood to over 40 billion capillaries in the body. As evidence of the extensiveness of these branchings, consider the fact that scarcely any cell in the body is more than 60 to 80 m away from any capillary. The tiny capillaries provide a total surface area of 1,000 square miles for exchanges between blood and tissue fluid. The amount of blood flowing through a particular capillary bed depends primarily on the resistance to blood...

Heart Rate Chemoreceptor

Regulating Blood Pressure

Circulating renin activates angiotensin 49.18 Control of Blood Pressure through Vascular Resistance A drop in arterial pressure reduces blood flow to tissues,resulting in local accumulation of metabolic wastes.This change in the extracellular environment stimulates autoregulatory opening of the arteries and would lead to a further decrease in central blood pressure if this were not prevented by the negative feedback mechanisms shown in this diagram, which work by promoting the constriction of...

Geotaxis Lobster

Motor Innervation

FIGURE 2.3-9 Block diagram of a theoretical type 0 control loop for a spindle designed to keep the steady-state output instantaneous firing rate, r2, constant. Note that the CNS output to the spindle ys motor fiber is proportional to some re ro - r2, re 0 if ro - r2 lt 0. FIGURE 2.3-9 Block diagram of a theoretical type 0 control loop for a spindle designed to keep the steady-state output instantaneous firing rate, r2, constant. Note that the CNS output to the spindle ys motor fiber is...

Ribbon worms are unsegmented

Earthworm Muscular Circular

The carnivorous ribbon worms phylum Nemertea are dorsoventrally flattened. They have nervous and excretory systems similar to those of flatworms, but unlike flatworms, they have a complete digestive tract with a mouth at one end and an anus at the other. Food moves in one direction through the digestive tract and is acted on by a series of digestive enzymes. Small ribbon worms move by beating their cilia. Larger ones employ waves of muscle contraction to move over the surface of sediments or to...

Structural Organization of the Brain

The brain is composed of an enormous number of association neurons and accompanying neuroglia, arranged in regions and subdivisions.These neurons receive sensory information, direct the activity of motor neurons, and perform such higher brain functions as learning and memory. The central nervous system CNS , consisting of the brain and spinal cord fig. 8.1 , receives input from sensory neurons and directs the activity of motor neurons that innervate muscles and glands. The association neurons...

Information Processing by Neuronal Networks

Ganglion Sympathetic System

The functions of the nervous system can be understood in terms of neuronal networks. In this section we will use two subsystems of the nervous system to demonstrate the functioning of such networks. The first example, the autonomic nervous system, consists of efferent pathways the second, the visual system, consists of afferent and integrative pathways. Techniques that have allowed neurobiologists to trace neuronal connections, identify neurotransmitters at synapses, and record action...

Gastrulation Producing the Body Plan

Human Gastrulation

The blastula is typically a fluid-filled ball of cells. How does this simple ball of cells become an embryo, made up of multiple tissue layers, with head and tail ends and dorsal and ventral sides Gastrulation is the process whereby the blastula is transformed by massive movements of cells into an embryo with multiple tissue layers and visible body axes. The resulting spatial relationships between tissues make possible the inductive interactions that trigger differentiation and organ formation....

The Surviving Nonseed Tracheophytes

Microsporangium

The nonseed tracheophytes have a large, independent sporo-phyte and a small gametophyte that is independent of the sporophyte. The gametophytes of the surviving nonseed tra-cheophytes are rarely more than 1 or 2 centimeters long and are short-lived, whereas their sporophytes are often highly visible the sporophyte of a tree fern, for example, may be 15 or 20 meters tall and may live for many years. The most prominent resting stage in the life cycle of a non-seed tracheophyte is the...

Structure Function and Information Flow

Forebrain Structure And Function

The human nervous system consists of three major components. The brain and spinal cord together constitute the central nervous system CNS . Information is transmitted to and from the CNS by means of an enormous network of nerves that make up the peripheral nervous system PNS . The PNS reaches every tissue of the body. It connects to the CNS via spinal nerves and cranial nerves. A nerve is a bundle of axons that carries information about many things simultaneously. It is important to distinguish...

Radiation Tolerance Of The Central Nervous System

The limitation on the delivery of radiation to the central nervous system CNS is the radiation tolerance of the normal brain and spinal cord. Radiation doses beyond conventional tolerance are associated with complications, and these are described as acute, early delayed and delayed reactions based on the time of appearance after treatment completion. Acute reactions during radiotherapy for pituitary adenoma in the form of acute edema are extremely rare and reversible. Early delayed reactions in...

Suprarenal Gland

Postganglionic Nerve Fibers

The suprarenal gland develops from two components a a mesodermal portion, which forms the cortex, and b an ectodermal portion, which forms the medulla. During the fifth week of development, mesothelial cells between the root of the mesentery and the developing gonad begin to proliferate and penetrate the underlying mesenchyme Fig. 19.42 . Here they differentiate into large acidophilic organs, which form the fetal cortex, or primitive cortex, of the suprarenal gland Fig. 19.44A . Shortly...

Reflexes

Mechanism Reflex Arc

The thermoregulatory system we used as an example in the previous section, and many of the body's other homeostatic control systems, belong to the general category of stimulus-response sequences known as reflexes. Although in some reflexes we are aware of the stimulus and or the response, many reflexes regulating the internal environment occur without any conscious awareness. In the most narrow sense of the word, a reflex is a specific involuntary, unpremeditated, unlearned built-in response to...

Neural Growth and Regeneration

The elaborate networks of nerve-cell processes that characterize the nervous system are remarkably similar in all human beings and depend upon the outgrowth of specific axons to specific targets. Development of the nervous system in the embryo begins with a series of divisions of precursor cells that can develop into neurons or glia. After the last cell division, each neuronal daughter cell differentiates, migrates to its final location, and sends out processes that will become its axon and...

Feedforward Regulation

Another type of regulatory process frequently used in conjunction with negative-feedback systems is feedforward. Let us give an example of feedforward and then define it. The temperature-sensitive nerve cells that trigger negative-feedback regulation of body temperature when body temperature begins to fall are located inside the body. In addition, there are temperature-sensitive nerve cells in the skin, and these cells, in effect, monitor outside temperature. When outside temperature falls, as...

Afferent Muscle Innervation Provides Feedback for Motor Control

Nuclear Bag Fiber

The muscles, joints, and ligaments are innervated with sensory receptors that inform the central nervous system about body position and muscle activity. Skeletal muscles contain muscle spindles, Golgi tendon organs, free nerve endings, and some Pacinian corpuscles. Joints contain Ruffini endings and Pacinian corpuscles,- joint capsules contain nerve endings,- ligaments contain Golgi tendon-like organs. Together, these are the proprioceptors, providing sensation from the deep somatic structures....

Artery Of Adamkiewicz

Metameric Vertebrae Development

Axial CT scans of three vertebrae. A Scan of a T11 vertebra demonstrates the sagittal configuration straight posterior to anterior of the pedicle with respect to the vertebral body. The line demonstrates the general tract that a needle would take during vertebroplasty by means of a transpedic-ular approach. In the scan of an L5 vertebra B , the transpedicular approach black line is nearly 45 away from the sagittal plane. In the scan at T1 C , the transpedicular angle with the...

Medical Term Urine In Cavity

3431 Medical

A semipermeable membrane richly supplied with small blood vessels lines the peritoneal cavity. With dialysate dwelling in the peritoneal cavity, waste products diffuse from the network of blood vessels into the dialysate. FIGURE 13-7. Peritoneal dialysis. A semipermeable membrane richly supplied with small blood vessels lines the peritoneal cavity. With dialysate dwelling in the peritoneal cavity, waste products diffuse from the network of blood vessels into...

Functional Classes of Neurons

Nerve Cell Function

Neurons can be divided into three functional classes afferent neurons, efferent neurons, and interneurons. Afferent neurons convey information from the tissues and organs of the body into the central nervous system, efferent neurons transmit electric signals from the central nervous system out to effector cells particularly muscle or gland cells or other neurons , and interneurons connect neurons within the central nervous system Figure 8-4 . As a rough estimate, for each afferent neuron...

Neurons Synapses and Communication

Acetylcholine Neuromuscular Junction

The most remarkable abilities of nervous systems stem from interactions among neurons. It is these interactions that process and integrate information. Our nervous systems can orchestrate complex behaviors, deal with complex concepts, and learn and remember because large numbers of neurons interact with one another. The mechanisms of these interac tions depend on synapses between cells. Synapses, as we saw above, are structurally specialized junctions where one cell influences another cell...

Autonomic Neurons

Autonomic Motor

As discussed in chapter 7, neurons of the peripheral nervous system PNS that conduct impulses away from the central nervous system CNS are known as motor, or efferent, neurons. There are two major categories of motor neurons somatic and autonomic. Somatic motor neurons have their cell bodies within the CNS and send axons to skeletal muscles, which are usually under voluntary control. This was briefly described in chapter 8 see fig. 8.23 , in the section on the reflex arc, and is reviewed in...

Baroreceptor Reflex

Baroreceptor Reflex

In order for blood pressure to be maintained within limits, specialized receptors for pressure are needed. These baroreceptors are stretch receptors located in the aortic arch and in the carotid sinuses. An increase in pressure causes the walls of these arterial regions to stretch, increasing the frequency of action potentials along sensory nerve fibers fig. 14.25 . A fall in pressure below the normal range, by contrast, causes a decrease in the frequency of action potentials produced by these...

Cerebral Cortex

Central Sulcus

The cerebrum consists of an outer cerebral cortex, composed of 2 to 4 mm of gray matter and underlying white matter. The cerebral cortex is characterized by numerous folds and grooves called convolutions. The elevated folds of the convolutions are called gyri, and the depressed grooves are the sulci. Each cerebral hemisphere is subdivided by deep sulci, or fissures, into five lobes, four of which are visible from the surface fig. 8.6 . These lobes are the frontal, parietal, temporal, and...

Adrenergic and Cholinergic Synaptic Transmission

Epinephrine Norepinephrine

Acetylcholine ACh is the neurotransmitter of all preganglionic fibers both sympathetic and parasympathetic . Acetylcholine is also the transmitter released by most parasympathetic post- ganglionic fibers at their synapses with effector cells fig. 9.7 . Transmission at these synapses is thus said to be cholinergic. The neurotransmitter released by most postganglionic sympathetic nerve fibers is norepinephrine noradrenaline . Transmission at these synapses is thus said to be adrenergic. There are...

Conclusions

Racz Adhesiolysis

Since their inception in 1985, release to the pain management community in 1987, and assignment of an CPT code in 2000, epidurography Figure 10.14. A Epidurogram demonstrating filling defect on right at the C7 nerve root level. B Cannulation of the right C7 medial neuroforamen. Figure 10.14. A Epidurogram demonstrating filling defect on right at the C7 nerve root level. B Cannulation of the right C7 medial neuroforamen. Figure 10.14. C Epidurolysis of the right C7 with transforaminal...

Sympathetic Division

Spinal Nerve Sympathetic Division

The sympathetic division is also called the thoracolumbar division of the autonomic system because its preganglionic fibers exit the spinal cord from the first thoracic T1 to the second lumbar L2 levels. Most sympathetic nerve fibers, however, separate from the somatic motor fibers and synapse with postganglionic neurons within a double row of sympathetic ganglia, called paravertebral ganglia, located on either side of the spinal cord fig. 9.2 . Ganglia within each row are interconnected,...

Single Unit and Multiunit Smooth Muscles

Multi Unit Smooth Muscle

Smooth muscles are often grouped into two functional categories single-unit and multiunit fig. 12.35 . Single-unit smooth muscles have numerous gap junctions electrical synapses between adjacent cells that weld them together electrically they thus behave as a single unit, much like cardiac muscle. Most smooth muscles including those in the digestive tract and uterus are single-unit. Only some cells of single-unit smooth muscles receive autonomic innervation, but the ACh released by the axon can...

Monoamines as Neurotransmitters

A variety of chemicals in the CNS function as neurotransmitters. Among these are the monoamines,a chemical family that includes dopamine,norepinephrine,and serotonin. Although these molecules have similar mechanisms of action, they are used by different neurons for different functions. The regulatory molecules epinephrine, norepinephrine, dopamine, and serotonin are in the chemical family known as monoamines. Serotonin is derived from the amino acid tryptophan. Epinephrine, norepinephrine, and...

Crossword Nervous System

A division of the autonomic nervous system 6. Dementia caused by multiple small strokes abbreviation _I_ 7. Inflammation of a spinal nerve root 9. Drug used to treat Parkinson disease 11. Electric study of the brain abbreviation 12. Fluid around the brain and spinal cord abbreviation __F 13. Instrument used for making computerized radiographic images 15. Order related to a patient's activity abbreviation 17. A sudden, brief interruption of blood flow to brain tissue abbreviation 18. Episodes...

Intestinal Reflexes

Intestinal Reflexes

There are several intestinal reflexes that are controlled locally, by means of the enteric nervous system and paracrine regulators, The inhibitory neural and endocrine mechanisms during the intestinal phase prevent the further passage of chyme from the stomach to the duodenum. This gives the duodenum time to process the load of chyme received previously. Since secretion of the enterogastrone is stimulated by fat in the chyme, a breakfast of bacon and eggs takes longer to pass through the...

Erection Emission and Ejaculation

Bulbourethral Gland Inflammation

Erection, accompanied by increases in the length and width of the penis, is achieved as a result of blood flow into the erectile tissues of the penis. These erectile tissues include two paired structures the corpora cavernosa located on the dorsal side of the penis, and one unpaired corpus spongiosum on the ventral Seminal vesicle Ejaculatory duct Prostate Figure 20.21 The organs of the male reproductive system. The male organs are seen here in a sagittal view. side fig. 20.22 . The urethra...

Figure 125

Knee Jerk Reflex

a Passive stretch of the muscle activates the spindle stretch receptors and causes an increased rate of action potentials in the afferent nerve. b Contraction of the extrafusal fibers removes tension on the stretch receptors and lowers the rate of action potential firing. Blue arrows indicate direction of force on the muscle spindles. magnitude of the stretch and the speed with which it occurs. Although the two kinds of stretch receptors are separate entities, they will be referred to...

Crossword Male Reproductive System

Reproductive System Crossword

Abnormal, painful, difficult prefix 6. Pertaining to condition of urine suffix 9. A reproductive organ 10. Stone or calculus root 13. Male gamete or sex cell 16. Main male sex hormone 18. Protein associated with prostate cancer abbreviation 1. Self-examination of the testis abbreviation 8. Gland that contributes to semen 11. High blood pressure abbreviation 12. Type of cell division that forms the gametes 14. Hernia or localized dilation suffix 15. Male reproductive gland root 17. Condition...

Control Systems Involving the Hypothalamus and Pituitary

Negative Feedback Mechanism Ovary

The pituitary gland, or hypophysis, lies in a pocket the sella turcica of the sphenoid bone at the base of the brain Figure 10-12 , just below the brain area called the hypothalamus. The pituitary is connected to the hypothalamus by the infundibulum, a stalk containing nerve fibers and small blood vessels. In adult human beings, the pituitary gland is composed of two adjacent lobes the anterior pituitary toward the front of the head and the posterior pituitary toward the back of the head each...

Autonomic Nervous System

Mesenteric Nervous System

The efferent innervation of all tissues other than skeletal muscle is by way of the autonomic nervous system. A special case occurs in the gastrointestinal tract, where autonomic neurons innervate a nerve network in the wall of the intestinal tract. This network, termed the enteric nervous system, will be described in Chapter 17. In the autonomic nervous system, parallel chains, each with two neurons, connect the central nervous system and the effector cells Figure 8-43 . This is in contrast to...

Effects of Blood PCO2 and pH on Ventilation

Physiology Heart Vagus Carotid Sinus

Chemoreceptor input to the brain stem modifies the rate and depth of breathing so that, under normal conditions, arterial PCo2, pH, and Po2 remain relatively constant. If hypoventilation inadequate ventilation occurs, PCO2 quickly rises and pH falls. The fall in pH is due to the fact that carbon dioxide can combine Sensory nerve fibers in vagus nerve Sensory nerve fibers in vagus nerve Figure 16.26 Sensory input from the aortic and carotid bodies. The peripheral chemoreceptors aortic and...

An early lineage split separated protostomes and deuterostomes

Protostome Pituitary

The next major split in the animal lineage after the divergence of the ctenophores occurred during the Cambrian period and separated two groups that have been evolving separately ever since. These two major lineages the protostomes and the deuterostomes dominate today's fauna. Members of both lineages are triploblastic have three cell layers , bilaterally symmetrical, and cephalized. Because their skeletons and body cavities are more complex than those of the animals we have discussed so far,...

Parasympathetic Division

Collateral Ganglia Location

The parasympathetic division is also known as the craniosacral division of the autonomic system. This is because its preganglionic fibers originate in the brain specifically, in the midbrain, medulla oblongata, and pons and in the second through fourth sacral levels of the spinal column. These pre-ganglionic parasympathetic fibers synapse in ganglia that are located next to or actually within the organs innervated. These parasympathetic ganglia, called terminal ganglia, supply the...

Body Systems 164

9 Circulation The Cardiovascular and Lymphatic Systems 166 Roots Pertaining to the Cardiovascular and Lymphatic Systems 178 Clinical Aspects of the Circulatory System 181 Labeling Exercises 200 Chapter Review 202 Case Studies 206 Crossword Puzzle 209 Answer Section 210 and Immunity 221 Clinical Aspects Blood 224 Clinical Aspects Immunity 228 Labeling Exercise 236 Chapter Review 237 Case Studies 239 Crossword Puzzle 244 Answer Section 245 and Lungs 249 Breathing 251 Gas Transport 252 Word Parts...

Peripheral Nervous System

Nerve fibers in the peripheral nervous system transmit signals between the central nervous system and receptors and effectors in all other parts of the body. As noted earlier, the nerve fibers are grouped into bundles called nerves. The peripheral nervous system consists of 43 pairs of nerves 12 pairs of cranial nerves and 31 pairs that connect with the spinal cord as the spinal nerves. The cranial nerves and a summary of the information they transmit were listed in Table 8-8. In general, of...

Ascending Pathways

Primary Sensory Areas

The central processes of the afferent neurons enter the brain or spinal cord and synapse upon interneurons there. The central processes diverge to terminate on several, or many, interneurons Figure 9-5a and converge so that the processes of many afferent neurons terminate upon a single interneuron Figure 9-5b . The interneurons upon which the afferent neurons synapse are termed second-order neurons, and these in turn synapse with third-order neurons, and so on, until the information coded...

Motor Control Hierarchy

Spinal Cord Levels And Function

Throughout the central nervous system, the neurons involved in controlling the motor neurons to skeletal muscles can be thought of as being organized in a hierarchical fashion, each level of the hierarchy having a certain task in motor control Figure 12-1 . To begin a movement, a general intention such as pick up sweater or write signature or answer telephone is generated at the highest level of the motor control hierarchy. This highest level encompasses many regions of the brain, including...

Negative Feedback Loops

Negative Feedback Loop Effector

The concept of homeostasis has been of immense value in the study of physiology because it allows diverse regulatory mechanisms to be understood in terms of their why as well as their how. The concept of homeostasis also provides a major foundation for medical diagnostic procedures. When a particular measurement of the internal environment, such as a blood measurement table 1.2 , deviates significantly from the normal range of values, it can be concluded that homeostasis is not being maintained...

Control of the Autonomic Nervous System by Higher Brain Centers

Gehirnzentren

Visceral functions are largely regulated by autonomic reflexes. In most autonomic reflexes, sensory input is transmitted to brain centers that integrate this information and respond by modifying the activity of preganglionic autonomic neurons. The neural centers that directly control the activity of autonomic nerves are influenced by higher brain areas, as well as by sensory input. The medulla oblongata of the brain stem is the area that most directly controls the activity of the autonomic...

Organs with Dual Innervation

Most visceral organs receive dual innervation they are innervated by both sympathetic and parasympathetic fibers. In this condition, the effects of the two divisions of the autonomic system may be antagonistic, complementary, or cooperative table 9.7 . The effects of sympathetic and parasympathetic innervation of the pacemaker region of the heart is the best example of the antagonism of these two systems. In this case, sympathetic and parasympathetic fibers innervate the same cells. Adrenergic...

Neurons Are Treated With A Drug That Permanently Stops The Na K Atpase Pumps. What Happens To The Resting Membrane

The ventricular system of the brain and the distribution of the cerebrospinal fluid, shown in blue. total blood supply, which supports its high oxygen utilization. If the blood flow to a region of the brain is reduced to 10 to 25 percent of its normal level, energy stores are depleted, energy-dependent membrane ion pumps fail, membrane ion gradients decrease, the membranes depolarize, and extracellular potassium concentrations increase. The exchange of substances between blood and extracellular...

Biogenic Amines

The biogenic amines are neurotransmitters that are synthesized from amino acids and contain an amino group R-NH2 . The most common biogenic amines are dopamine, norepinephrine, serotonin, and histamine. Epinephrine, another biogenic amine, is not a common Vander et al. Human Physiology The Mechanism of Body Function, Eighth Edition neurotransmitter in the central nervous system but is the major hormone secreted by the adrenal medulla. Norepinephrine is an important neurotransmitter in both the...

Spinal Nerves

Spinal Cord Gray Matter Neuron

There are thirty-one pairs of spinal nerves. These nerves are grouped into eight cervical, twelve thoracic, five lumbar, five sacral, and one coccygeal according to the region of the vertebral column from which they arise fig. 8.23 . Each spinal nerve is a mixed nerve composed of sensory and motor fibers. These fibers are packaged together in the nerve, but they separate near the attachment of the nerve to the spinal cord. This produces two roots to each nerve. The dorsal root is composed of...

Coding for Stimulus Intensity

Because action potentials are all-or-none events, a stronger stimulus cannot produce an action potential of greater amplitude. The code for stimulus strength in the nervous system is not amplitude modulated AM . When a greater stimulus strength is applied to a neuron, identical action potentials are produced more frequently more are produced per second . Therefore, the code for stimulus strength in the nervous system is frequency modulated FM . This concept is illustrated in figure 7.15. When...

The Fightor Flight Response Is a Result of Widespread Sympathetic Activation

This response is the classic example of the sympathetic nervous system's ability to produce widespread activation of its effectors,- it is activated when an organism's survival is in jeopardy and the animal may have to fight or flee. Some components of the response result from the direct effects of sympathetic activation, while the secretion of epinephrine by the adrenal medulla also contributes. Sympathetic stimulation of the heart and blood vessels results in a rise in blood pressure because...

Descending Tracts

Descending Tracts

The descending fiber tracts that originate in the brain consist of two major groups the corticospinal, or pyramidal tracts, and the extrapyramidal tracts table 8.5 . The pyramidal tracts descend directly, without synaptic interruption, from the cerebral cortex to the spinal cord. The cell bodies that contribute fibers to these pyramidal tracts are located primarily in the precentral gyrus also called the motor cortex . Other areas of the cerebral cortex, however, also contribute to these...

Hindbrain

Corpus Striatum And Substantia Nigra

The rhombencephalon, or hindbrain, is composed of two regions the metencephalon and the myelencephalon. Each of these regions will be discussed separately. The metencephalon is composed of the pons and the cerebellum. The pons can be seen as a rounded bulge on the underside of the brain, between the midbrain and the medulla oblongata fig. 8.19 . Surface fibers in the pons connect to the cerebellum, and deeper fibers are part of motor and sensory tracts that pass from the medulla oblongata,...

Disc Herniation

Annulus Vertebrae

Findings of disc disease on MRI examination must be carefully correlated with clinical symptoms 6 . Jensen et al. performed lumbar spine MRI on 98 patients without back pain and found a 64 prevalence of either a bulge, protrusion, or extrusion 7 . Thirty-eight percent had abnormalities at more than one level. A similar study noted extrusions in 24 of asymptomatic people 8 . Furthermore, discogenic pain, caused by a small annular tear with an inflammatory reaction, can often produce severe...

Supporting Cells

Types Neuroglia

Unlike other organs that are packaged in connective tissue derived from mesoderm the middle layer of embryonic tissue , the supporting cells of the nervous system are derived from the same embryonic tissue layer ectoderm that produces neurons. Figure 7.3 The relationship between the CNS and PNS. Sensory and motor neurons of the peripheral nervous system carry information into and out of, respectively, the central nervous system brain and spinal cord . The Nervous System Neurons and Synapses 155...

Organs and Systems

Epithelial Tissue Hair

Organs are composed of two or more primary tissues that serve the different functions of the organ.The skin is an organ that has numerous functions provided by its constituent tissues. An organ is a structure composed of at least two, and usually all four, primary tissues. The largest organ in the body, in terms of surface area, is the skin fig. 1.21 . In this section, the numerous functions of the skin serve to illustrate how primary tissues cooperate in the service of organ physiology. Figure...

The Internal Environment and Homeostasis

Extracellular Fluid Plasma

An amoeba and a human liver cell both obtain their energy by breaking down certain organic nutrients. The chemical reactions involved in this intracellular process are remarkably similar in the two types of cells and involve the utilization of oxygen and the production of carbon dioxide. The amoeba picks up oxygen directly from the fluid surrounding it its external environment and eliminates carbon dioxide into the same fluid. But how can the liver cell and all other internal parts of the body...