All Encompassing Nature

People historically have viewed nature as an adversary. The "conquest of nature" has traditionally meant human encroachment on natural ecosystems, usually without benefit of predictive knowledge. Such environmental problems as pollution, species extinction, and overpopulation can be viewed as experiments performed on a grand scale without appropriate controls. The problem with such experiments is that the outcomes might be irreversible. A major lesson of ecology is that humans are not separate from nature; we are constrained by the same principles as are other organisms on the earth. One object of ecology, then, is to learn these principles so that they can be applied to our portion of the earth's ecosystem.

Populations that are not regulated by predators, disease, or food limitation grow exponentially. The human population, on a global scale, grows this way. All the wars and famines in history have scarcely made a dent in this growth pattern. Humankind has yet to identify its carrying capacity on a global scale, although regional famines certainly have provided insights into what happens when local carrying capacity is exceeded. The human carrying capacity needs to be defined in realistic ecological terms, and such constraints as energy, food, and space must be incorporated into the calculations. For example, knowledge of energy flow teaches that there is more energy at the bottom of a food web (producers) than at successively higher trophic levels

(consumers), which means that more people could be supported as herbivores than as carnivores.

The study of disease transmission, epidemiology, relies heavily on ecological principles. Population density, rates of migration among epidemic centers, physiological tolerance of the host, and rates of evolution of disease-causing parasites are all the subjects of ecological study.

An obvious application of ecological principles is conservation. Before habitats for endangered species can be set aside, for example, their ecological requirements, such as migratory routes, breeding, and feeding habits, must be known. This also applies to the introduction (intentional or accidental) of exotic species into habitats. History is filled with examples of introduced species that caused the extinction of native species. Application of ecological knowledge in a timely fashion, therefore, might prevent species from becoming endangered in the first place.

One of the greatest challenges we face is the loss of habitats worldwide. This is especially true of the tropics, which contain most of the earth's species of plants and animals. Species in the tropics have narrow niches, which means that they are more restricted in range and less tolerant of change than are many temperate species. Therefore, destruction of tropical habitats, such as rain forests, leads to rapid species extinction. These species are the potential sources of many pharma-ceutically valuable drugs; further, they are a genetic record of millions of years of evolutionary history. Tropical rain forests also are prime sources of oxygen and act as a buffer against carbon dioxide accumulation in the atmosphere. Ecological knowledge of global carbon cycles permits the prediction that destruction of these forests will have a profound impact on the quality of the air.

—Lawrence E. Hurd See also: Adaptations and their mechanisms; Biodiversity; Biogeography; Coevolution; Communities; Competition; Demographics; Ecological niches; Ecosystems; Habitats and biomes; Mark, release, and recapture methods; Population analysis; Population fluctuations; Population growth; Predation; Reproductive strategies; Symbiosis; Systematics; Wildlife management.

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Pregnancy And Childbirth

Pregnancy And Childbirth

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